Sunday, July 31, 2016

Turkish propolis supresses MCF-7 cell death induced by homocysteine

Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Jun 14;82:704-712

Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is a most important risk factor for various vascular diseases including coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial and venous thrombosis. Propolis is produced by honeybee from various oils, pollens and wax materials. Therefore, it has various biological properties including antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

This study investigated the effects of propolis and Hcy on apoptosis in cancer cells. According to our findings, Hcy induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells by regulating numerous genes and proteins involved in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. In contrast, treatment with propolis inhibited caspase- 3 and -9 induced by Hcy in MCF-7 cells. It can be concluded that Hcy may augment the activity of anticancer agents that induce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in their target cells. In contrast to the previous studies herein we found that propolis in low doses protected cancer cells inhibiting cellular apoptosis mediated by intracellular ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

Saturday, July 30, 2016

Component of Honey, Propolis Protects Against Cell Damage

Chrysin, a flavonoid attenuates histological changes of hyperammonemic rats: A dose dependent study

Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 May 24;82:345-354

Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a major component of some traditional medicinal herbs present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts.

The study was aimed to illuminate the effect of chrysin in the pathogenesis of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rat model in a dose dependent manner. Rats were injected with NH4Cl (100mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks for the induction of experimental hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with chrysin by orally at a dose of 25, 50 & 100mg/kg b.w. respectively. Protective effect of chrysin against hyperammonemia was evaluated by performing biochemical estimations and morphopathological investigations of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of liver, brain and kidney tissues. Supplementation of chrysin reinstated the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, uric acid, total bilirubin, creatinine, brain glutamate, glutamine, nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, and liver marker enzymes. On the other hand increased level of plasma urea was observed in chrysin treated rats as compared with hyperammonemic rats. Chrysin administration caused distortion of hepatic, brain and kidney architecture as shown by histological examination.

Chrysin at a dose (100mg/kg b.w.) showed an utmost decline in the level of all biochemical estimations. Both biochemical and morphological studies clearly revealed that chrysin protects against cell injury induced by ammonia intoxication in a dose-response manner with respect to endogenous antioxidants and hypoammonemic effects.

Friday, July 29, 2016

Honey Treats Children's Cough Better Than OTC Treatments

Efficacy and tolerability of a polysaccharide-resin-honey based cough syrup as compared to carbocysteine syrup for children with colds: a randomized, single-blinded, multicenter study

World J Pediatr. 2016 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print]


Available pediatric treatments for acute cough are limited by lack of demonstrated efficacy. The objective of this trial is to compare the effects of a polysaccharide-resin-honey based cough syrup, and carbocysteine syrups on nocturnal and daytime cough associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infections (URIs).


Using a single-blind randomization design, the study recruited children from 4 general pediatric community clinics. Participants included 150 children aged 2 to 5 years with an URI, nocturnal and daytime cough and illness duration of ≤7 days. To be eligible, children had to be free of medication on the day before presentation. A survey was administered to parents on 4 consecutive days beginning from the day of presentation in clinic. Children received the study preparation on the first evening and then 3 times per day for 3 further days. Main outcome measures were cough frequency, cough severity, bothersome nature of cough, and quality of sleep for both child and parent.


Both preparations were well tolerated and cough improved over the study period. After one night and on all survey days, there was a significantly better result for polysaccharide-resin-honey.
<0 .05="" 4="" all="" cough="" days="" for="" improvement="" main="" measures.="" of="" outcome="" over="" p="" parameters.="" polysaccharide-resin-honey="" regards="" steeper="" the="" to="" trend="" was="" with="">

Both polysaccharide-resin-honey and carbocysteine cough syrups were well tolerated in children over 2 years of age. The polysaccharide-resinhoney syrup was associated with a more rapid and greater improvement in all clinical cough symptoms measured, beginning from the first night of therapy. Both nocturnal and daytime cough improved, as did sleep quality for both children and parents.

Thursday, July 28, 2016

Royal Jelly May Help Treat Alzheimer’s Disease

Royal jelly promotes DAF-16-mediated proteostasis to tolerate β-amyloid toxicity in C. elegans model of Alzheimer’s disease

Oncotarget, Published: July 26, 2016


Numerous studies have demonstrated that dietary intervention may promote health and help prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We recently reported that bee products of royal jelly (RJ) and enzyme-treated royal jelly (eRJ) were potent to promote healthy aging in C. elegans.

Here, we examined whether RJ/eRJ consumption may benefit to mitigate the AD symptom in the disease model of C. elegans. Our results showed that RJ/eRJ supplementation significantly delayed the body paralysis in AD worms, suggesting the β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity attenuation effects of RJ/eRJ. Genetic analyses suggested that RJ/eRJ-mediated alleviation of Aβ toxicity in AD worms required DAF-16, rather than HSF-1 and SKN-1, in an insulin/IGF signaling dependent manner. Moreover, RJ/eRJ modulated the transactivity of DAF-16 and dramatically improved the protein solubility in aged worms. Given protein solubility is a hallmark of healthy proteostasis, our findings demonstrated that RJ/eRJ supplementation improved proteostasis, and this promotion depended on the transactivity of DAF-16.

Collectively, the present study not only elucidated the possible anti-AD mechanism of RJ/eRJ, but also provided evidence from a practical point of view to shed light on the extensive correlation of proteostasis and the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Marker Compound Found for Genuine Manuka Honey

Security Industry, 7/25/2016

Scientists in New Zealand have developed a way to distinguish between Manuka honey and lower-quality substitutes.

Using fluorescence spectroscopy, the team were able to detect genuine Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey thanks to a marker compound - called leptosperin - that is only found in trace quantities in other honey types...

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Birds, Humans Communicate to Find Honey

Scientists document wild birds 'talking' with humans for the first time 

Science Alert, 7/22/2016

Zoologists have documented an incredible relationship between wild birds in Mozambique and the local Yao people, who team up together to hunt for honey.

Using a series of special hails and chirps the humans and birds are able to communicate - honeyguide birds lead the way to hidden beehives, where the Yao people share the spoils with their avian friends...

Monday, July 25, 2016

Royal Jelly May Help Control Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Functional and Proteomic Investigations Reveal Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 Associated with Anti-hypertension Activity in Mouse Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 22;6:30230

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are a major cell type of the arterial wall and their functionality is associated with blood pressure regulation. Although royal jelly (RJ) has reported effects on anti-hypertension, the mechanism of blood pressure regulation by major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), the most abundant RJ protein, is still unknown.

The mrjp1 gene was inserted into mouse VSMCs to investigate how MRJP1 influences VSMC functionality by functional and proteomic analysis. The expression of MRJP1 in VSMCs significantly reduced cell contraction, migration, and proliferation, suggesting a potential role in decreasing hypertension via action on VSMCs.

These anti-hypertension activities were further observed in the changes of the proteome setting of mouse VSMCs. Among 675 different proteins after MRJP1 expression, 646 were down-regulated and significantly enriched in pathways implicated in VSMC contraction and migration, which suggest MRJP1 lowers VSMC contraction and migration by inhibiting muscle filament movement. The down-regulated proteins also enriched pathways in proliferation, indicating that MRJP1 hinders VSMC proliferation by reducing the supply of energy and genetic material.

This is the first report integrating MRJP1 into VSMC, revealing the function and mechanism correlated with anti-hypertensive activity. This offers a therapeutic potential to control hypertension by gene-therapy using bee-products.

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Bee Venom Was Used in Ancient Greece, China and Egypt

The Healing Power of Venom

Wall Street Journal

July 22, 2016

Humans have been toying with this idea for centuries. One of the earliest treatments for ailments from gout to baldness was apitherapy, the medical application of bee venom, which was used in ancient Greece, China and Egypt. The ancient Greeks associated snakes and their venoms with medicine through the god Asclepius, whose followers prescribed venoms as cures and whose staff had a snake wrapped around it—the inspiration for the well-known symbol of medicine today.

Saturday, July 23, 2016

Honey May Help Prevent Cancer Due to Antioxidant Activity

Histopathological and biochemical investigations of protective role of honey in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Jul 21;16(1):232


Natural honey (honey) is considered as a part of traditional medicine all over the world. It has both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, useful in stimulation of wounds and burns healing and gastric ulcers treatment. The aim of this study, for the first time, was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs.


Eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF + honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 μg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days.


At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF + honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF + honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defens systems and lipid peroxidation in content in other tissues of AF + honey treated rats.


The present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Friday, July 22, 2016

Chestnut Honey Shows Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity

A comparative study of the antihyaluronidase, antiurease, antioxidant, antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of different unifloral degrees of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) honeys

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2016 Jul 20:1-9

This study was planned to investigate some physicochemical and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of three different degrees of unifloral characters of chestnut honeys.

Antihyaluronidase, antiurease and antimicrobial activities were evaluated as anti-inflammatory characteristics. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic profiles, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), scavenging activities of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were evaluated as antioxidant properties. Color, optical rotation, conductivity, moisture, pH and ash content were evaluated as physicochemical parameters, and some sugars content, prolin, diastase, HMF and minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn) were evaluated as chemical and biochemical parameters.

All studied physicochemical and biological active properties were changed in line with the unifloral character of the chestnut honeys. A higher unifloral character was found associated with greater apitherapeutic capacity of the honey, as well as biological active compounds.

Thursday, July 21, 2016

Gelam Honey and Ginger May Help Treat Colorectal Cancer

Mechanism of Chemoprevention against Colon Cancer Cells Using Combined Gelam Honey and Ginger Extract via mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin Pathways

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(15):6549-56

The PI3K-Akt-mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in genesis of colorectal cancer (CRC).

The aim of this study was to elucidate whether combination of Gelam honey and ginger might have chemopreventive properties in HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating the mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin and apoptosis signaling pathways. Treatment with Gelam honey and ginger reduced the viability of the HT29 cells dose dependently with IC50 values of 88 mg/ml and 2.15 mg/ml respectively, their while the combined treatment of 2 mg/ml of ginger with 31 mg/ml of Gelam honey inhibited growth of most HT29 cells.

Gelam honey, ginger and combination induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner with the combined treatment exhibiting the highest apoptosis rate. The combined treatment downregulated the gene expressions of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, Rictor, β-catenin, Gsk3β, Tcf4 and cyclin D1 while cytochrome C and caspase 3 genes were shown to be upregulated.

In conclusion, the combination of Gelam honey and ginger may serve as a potential therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer through inhibiton of mTOR, Wnt/β catenin signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis pathway.

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Active Leptospermum Honey a 'Valuable' Treatment for Partial-Thickness Facial Burns

A Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Active Leptospermum Honey for the Treatment of Partial-Thickness Facial Burns

Adv Skin Wound Care. 2016 Aug;29(8):349-355


Research suggests that active Leptospermum honey (ALH) improves outcomes in patients with partial-thickness burns by enhancing healing and reepithelialization rates, as well as by protecting against antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This study assessed the effectiveness of ALH gel on healing time, bacterial growth, patient satisfaction, and cost of treatment.


Single-arm, prospective case series.


Seven patients (aged 7-64 years) with partial-thickness facial burns were recruited from a northeastern US burn center.


All patients cleansed their wounds daily with soap and water, after which they applied ALH gel.


Three physicians independently rated healing using wound photography and daily tests for the presence of exudate. Wound cultures on days 1 and 7 (±2 days) assessed bacterial growth. Patients completed a satisfaction survey at the end of treatment, and cost of treatment was calculated.


Healing time ranged from 3 to 14 days (mean, 8.1 days). Wound cultures revealed normal bacterial growth on days 1 and 7 for all patients. Patients rated ALH gel favorably, with the most common complaint of stickiness in 5 patients. One patient experienced transient burning on application that did not interrupt treatment. Average hospital-based cost of treatment was $26.15 per patient.


Healing time was congruent with or better than what would have been expected with standard treatment. Furthermore, despite no antibiotic treatment, wound culture results yielded no abnormal bacterial growth. Finally, patients overall reported satisfaction with treatment. The findings of this study suggest that ALH is a clinically and economically valuable treatment for partial-thickness facial burns.

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

6th Apimondia Apimedica and 5th Apiquality, Rome, Italy, 22-25 November 2016

The IZS in collaboration with the Italian Ministry of Health and Apimondia organize the 6th Apimondia Apimedica and 5th Apiquality Symposium from 22 to 25 November in Rome.

The Symposium will address the most relevant issues pertaining to apitherapy and the qualitative aspects of the production/use of bee products.

The Symposium is open to to researchers, students,  beekeepers and anybody interested in the topic.

The programme of the eventis as follows:

22 November 2016: Apiquality Symposium

23 November 2016: Apiquality Symposium (AM) and Apimedica Symposium (PM)

24 November 2016: Apimedica Symposium

25 Novmeber 2016: Excursions

Early bird registrations are open until 30 September 2016.

Abstracts of poster and oral presentations should be submitted by 30 September 2016 using the atteched template.

Event date: De quinta-feira, Setembro 22, 2016 até domingo, Setembro 25, 2016
Country: Italy
Event URL:
Institution: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e Toscana “M. Aleandri”
Attached files:  Abstract-submission_apimedica apiquality.doc
Group content visibility: Use group defaults

Monday, July 18, 2016

Propolis May Help Treat Chronic Rhinosinusitis

The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Jul;20(3):222-5


Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries.


This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats.


We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope.


The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth.


Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats

Sunday, July 17, 2016

Obituary: Dr. Théodore Cherbuliez

SOUTH FREEPORT - Dr. Théodore Cherbuliez died on July 2, 2016, at his home in South Freeport with Susan, his wife of 56 years, by his side...

mountains. After becoming a master beekeeper in 1988, he became interested in the health value of the products of the hive and was president of both the American Apitherapy Society and the Apitherapy Commission of Apimondia (the International Federation of Beekeepers Associations). He travelled worldwide, lecturing on and teaching apitherapy...

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Propolis, Bee Venom May Help Treat Schistosomiasis

Effect of bee venom or proplis on molecular and parasitological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

J Parasit Dis. 2016 Jun;40(2):390-400

The present study was performed to elucidate the efficacy of Apis mellifera L bee venom (BV) or proplis (200 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days) on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

The results recorded reduction in the total worm burden, numbers of immature eggs and the ova count in hepatic tissue in BV (sting or injection) or proplis treated groups as compared to the infected group.

Histological examination illustrated a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the diameter of hepatic granuloma in BV treated groups (272.78 and 266.9, respectively) and a significant decrease in proplis treated mice (229.35) compared with the infected group (260.67). Electrophoretic pattern of RNA showed a decrease in mean of maximal optical density in liver and intestine of S. mansoni infected mice treated with bee venom (sting or injection) as compared with infected group. Flow cytometry analyses of RNA or apoptotic percentage of worms recovered from BV sting (19 and 49 % respectively); BV injected (20.5 and 51.17 %, respectively) and proplis (35 and 23.93 %, respectively) groups were compared with S. mansoni infected group (37.87 and 39.21 %, respectively).

It can be concluded that administration of bee venom or proplis are effective in case of S. mansoni infection. Although bee venom cause increase of granuloma diameter and this might be due to venom concentration and further studies are required to avoid such harmful effect.

Friday, July 15, 2016

The Many Benefits of Raw Honey

The Spectrum, 7/14/2016

While putting honey in my coffee this morning, I thought of all the good honey does in the world and of our plight with honey bees and the environment.

We tend to focus on the fact that bees pollinate most of the plants we eat; therefore, it is important that we protect them.

But they do more than that. They produce honey. Honey has a rich and varied history with humans. It has been used all over the world for thousands of years.

The ancient Egyptians used it as a form of currency, to dress wounds and in their mummification process. Germans used it in mead, cider and beer. American Indians used it to preserve fruit and in herbal medicine.

Today, people use it for a variety of purposes although only a few have been scientifically tested.

What we do know for certain is that honey has been shown to act as an antibacterial. It will hamper the growth of food-borne pathogens, such as E. coli and salmonella, and will help to fight certain bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus.

It is also a powerful antioxidant — the darker the honey, the better its’ antibacterial and antioxidant powers...

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Bee Venom May Help Treat Parkinson's Disease

Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates motor dysfunction and modulates microglia activation in Parkinson's disease alpha-synuclein transgenic mice

Exp Mol Med. 2016 Jul 8;48(7):e244

α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has a critical role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which leads to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that bee venom (BV) has beneficial effects on PD symptoms in human patients or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxin-induced PD mice.

This study investigated whether treatment with BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) would improve the motor dysfunction and pathological features of PD in human A53T α-Syn mutant transgenic (A53T Tg) mice. The motor dysfunction of A53T Tg mice was assessed using the pole test. The levels of α-Syn, microglia and the M1/M2 phenotype in the spinal cord were evaluated by immunofluorescence. bvPLA2 treatment significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction in A53T Tg mice. In addition, bvPLA2 significantly reduced the expression of α-Syn, the activation and numbers of microglia, and the ratio of M1/M2 in A53T Tg mice.

These results suggest that bvPLA2 could be a promising treatment option for PD.

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Propolis and Royal Jelly Prevent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children

J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Mar 31;5(3):308-11

Propolis and royal jelly (RJ), two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the world as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients which are known to be effective for several medical conditions.

In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis.

When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Fatty Acids, Proteins Boost Nutritional Value of Bee Bread, Bee Pollen

Fatty acid profiles of monofloral clover beebread and pollen and proteomics of red clover (Trifolium pratense) pollen

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016 Jul 4:1-9

Fatty acids were identified in monofloral beebread (BB) and bee pollen (BP) loads collected from Trifolium pratense L.

A gas chromatography method was used to identify and quantify fatty acids: Thirty-five fatty acids were identified in BB and 42 in BP. A high amount of the healthy n-3 fatty acids was found. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 to n-6 reached a value of 8.42 and 3.35 in the latter products. The proteomic analysis also was performed on the manually collected T. pratense pollen, and the most abundant protein groups were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins identified in T. pratense pollen are involved in the main cellular functions (cell membrane formation, organelles traffic, and mainly metabolic processes).

Because of the composition of fatty acids in BB and BP and a variety of proteins present in pollen, these products are considered to be favorable for human nutrition and health.

Monday, July 11, 2016

Brazilian Propolis Shows Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tumor Effects

Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats

PLoS One. 2016 Jul 8;11(7):e0158654. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158654.

The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP).

Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups.

Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found.

Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats.

In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats.

Sunday, July 10, 2016

Honey: Revelation & Scientific Paradigm

The medicine in Islam thus acquired a rich flavour, with observance of health and hygiene becoming a norm

Greater Kashmir, 7/9/2016

Al-Nahl [the Bee] chapter 16th of Al-Quran states in its verse 68 [And thy Lord taught Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men’s) habitations]. Abdullah Yousuf Ali, in his famous commentary on Quran characterizes honeycomb with its hexagonal cells, geometrically perfect, a wonderful structure and is well called buyut (homes, the pleural of ‘bayt’ home in Arabic) and the way the bee finds out inaccessible places, in the hills, in the trees, and even among the habitations of men is one of the marvels of nature i.e. of Allah’s working in His creation. Working to what end in case of Bee is elucidated in the verse following, 69, of the same chapter {Then to eat of all the produce (of the earth) and find with skill the spacious path of its Lord; there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colours, wherein is healing for men, verily in this is a sign for those who give thought}. Commenting on this verse, Yousuf Ali says “The bee assimilates the juice of various kinds of flowers and fruits, and forms within its body the honey which it stores in its cells of wax. The different kinds of food from which it makes its honey give different colours to honey. It is dark brown; light brown, yellow, white and so on. The taste and flavor also varies, as in the case of heather honey, the honey from scented flowers and so on. As food, it is sweet and wholesome, and it is used in medicine.”...

Whatever is contained on honey in Al-Quran has been aptly termed “Statement from Allah” by Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Dr. Nurbaki concludes by stating that bees produce honey like a mind boggling pharmaceutical and biochemical factory by special divine inspiration!

Saturday, July 09, 2016

Does Royal Jelly Boost Lifespan?

Supplementation with Major Royal Jelly Proteins Increases Lifespan, Feeding and Fecundity in Drosophila

J. Agric. Food Chem.

Publication Date (Web): July 7, 2016

The major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of RJ in honeybee. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A), or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet, or MRJPs at 1.25% (C) , 2.50% (D ) or 5.00% (E). Diets B, C, D and E increased mean lifespan by 4.3%, 9.0%, 12.4% and 13.9% in males, and by 5.8%, 9.7%, 20.0% and 11.8% in females when compared to diet A, respectively. The diet supplemented with 2.50% MRJPs seems to have the optimal dose to improve both physiological and biochemical measures related to aging in both sexes. Interestingly, lifespan extension by MRJPs in Drosophila was positively associated with feeding and fecundity, and up-regulation of CuZn-SOD and the Egfr-mediated signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence that MRJPs are important components of RJ for prolonging lifespan in Drosophila.

Friday, July 08, 2016

Beeswax Used for Drug Implants

Beeswax corticosterone implants produce long-term elevation of plasma corticosterone and influence condition

Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016 Jul 1;233:109-14

Glucocorticoids can play a critical role in modulating life-history trade-offs. However, studying the effects of glucocorticoids on life-history often requires experimentally elevating plasma glucocorticoid concentrations for several weeks within normal physiological limits and without repeated handling of the animal.

Recently, implants made of beeswax and testosterone (T) were shown to have release dynamics superior to some currently available T implants, and these beeswax implants dissolved, eliminating the need to recapture the animal. We evaluated the utility of beeswax implants containing four different dosages of corticosterone (CORT; the primary glucocorticoid in birds) and their effect on several condition indices in a captive colony of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). The three implants with the greatest CORT doses (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5mg) produced spikes in plasma CORT concentrations 20h after treatment, but were within the limits that zebra finches may normally experience. The 0.5mg CORT implant elevated plasma CORT between typical baseline and restraint stress levels reported in other studies of zebra finches for the entire 35day experiment. Birds in the 0.5mg implant group were heavier, had greater furcular fat scores, and had lower hematocrit than birds in the control and other CORT implant groups.

Beeswax CORT implants are a low cost method of elevating plasma CORT for a prolonged time. Furthermore, because there is no need to remove these implants at the end of a study, this method may be amenable to studies of free-ranging animals.

Thursday, July 07, 2016

Thai Propolis Used to Preserve Knocked Out Teeth

The preservative effect of Thai propolis extract on the viability of human periodontal ligament cells

Dental Traumatology

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)


Tooth avulsion causes an injury to the periodontal ligament (PDL). The success of tooth replantation depends on the quantity and quality of PDL cells. The aim of this study was to examine the preservative and proliferative effects of Thai propolis extract, previously shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, on human PDL cells.

Materials and methods

Ninety-six premolars were left to air dry for 30 min and stored in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, or various concentrations of propolis extract from 0.25 to 10 mg ml−1 for 3 h. PDL cells were isolated by collagenase and trypsin digestion, and their viability was determined by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. PDL tissues were also scraped off the root surface and cultured to determine cell growth and morphology. The alamarBlue® and BrdU assays were performed to determine the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of the extract on cultured PDL cells, respectively.


A non-toxic dose of 2.5 mg ml−1 of propolis extract yielded the greatest percentage of cell viability (78.84 ± 3.34%), which was significantly higher than those of the other concentrations (P < 0.001). Nevertheless, this percentage was not significantly different from that of HBSS (80.14 ± 2.44%; P = 1.00), but was significantly higher than that of milk (71.27 ± 2.79%; P < 0.001). The cells grown from PDL explants looked like fibroblasts. However, 2.5 mg ml−1 of the extract did not induce PDL cell proliferation.


Thai propolis extract at 2.5 mg ml−1 appears to be the most effective dose for preserving the viability of PDL cells, and this was comparable to HBSS.

Wednesday, July 06, 2016

Honey May Help Treat Colitis

The dual anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of natural honey promote cell proliferation and neural regeneration in a rat model of colitis

Acta Histochemica

Available online 1 July 2016

A decreased antioxidant capacity and excessive inflammation are well-known features in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent evidence has suggested a role of honey in reducing colitis-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.

In this study, we examined whether the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of honey have a beneficial effect on the enteric innervation and cellular proliferation of UC in rat. The colitis was induced in rats by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). The effect of natural honey on induced colitis was assessed by the following parameters in colonic samples: tissue injury, inflammatory infiltration, interleukin-1β and -6, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. In addition, the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, inducible NO synthase, caspase-3, CD34, Ki67, S100, c-kit, and neuron-specific enolase were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared to the DSS-induced colitis group, the honey-treated group had significantly improved macroscopic and microscopic scores and exhibited the down-regulation of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic markers. In addition, up-regulation of intrinsic muscular innervation and epithelial cellular proliferation markers was detected.

These results provide new insight into the beneficial role of natural honey in the treatment of DSS-induced colitis via the inhibition of colonic motor dysfunction and the inflammatory-oxidative-apoptotic cascade. In addition, the role of honey in epithelial regeneration was clarified.

Tuesday, July 05, 2016

Nigerian Propolis May Help Treat Diabetes

Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016 May 4;5(3):233-8


According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes.


Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days.


Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05).


Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities.

Monday, July 04, 2016

Use of Propolis, Royal Jelly to Prevent Upper Respiratory Infections in Children

The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children

J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Mar 31;5(3):308-11

Propolis and royal jelly (RJ), two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the world as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients which are known to be effective for several medical conditions.

In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis.

When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects.

Sunday, July 03, 2016

Humans Have Been Using Propolis for Centuries

Used by bees for building and embalming, propolis has human health benefits
Roisin Armstrong, The Irish News, 29 June, 2016

PROPOLIS is a natural resin collected from the buds of conifers and other trees by honeybees. It is used by bees to seal walls and strengthen combs of hives, as well as to embalm dead invaders. Nice thought.

But humans have been availing of the positive benefits of this very protective healing product for centuries; it seems to have been used as early as 300BC for inflammation and wound healing.

One very significant feature of propolis is that it has an amazing safety record. For the most part it is revered for its immune-strengthening capabilities and helping to protect from winter infections, but more recently there is a raft of research available that puts it way up the list for help with many serious issues including cancer...

Saturday, July 02, 2016

Honey, Bee Pollen and Bee Bread May Help Treat High Cholesterol

[Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia with honey, pollen and bee bread in patients with different body mass].

[Article in Russian] Ter Arkh. 2011;83(8):58-62.


To assess efficacy of treatment of patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (ADL) with beekeeping products (honey, pollen, bee bread).


ADL parameters were examined in 157 patients (64 males and 93 females) aged 39 to 72 (mean age 61,7 + 8,5 years) with ADL. Products of beekeeping were given in the absence of allergy and individual resistance to honey, pollen, bee bread. The patients were divided into four groups: patients on hypolipidemic diet only, on diet and honey or pollen, on bee bread, combined treatment - diet, honey, pollen.


A significant hypolipidemic effect was registered in patients taking honey in combination with pollen (total cholesterol decreased by 18,3 %, LDLP cholesterol by 23,9 %) and bee bread (total cholesterol decreased by 15,7 %, LDLP cholesterol by 20,5 %).


Improvement of blood lipid composition in taking honey and pollen in overweight (body mass index - BMI 25 - 30) and obese (BMI over 30) patients occurs only in loss of body mass.

Friday, July 01, 2016

Study of Moroccan Propolis

Anti-acetylcholinesterase, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antityrosinase and antixanthine oxidase activities of Moroccan propolis

International Journal of Food Science & Technology

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Biological properties of Moroccan propolis have been scarcely studied. In the present work, the total phenols and flavonoids from 21 samples of propolis collected in different places of Morocco or 3 supplied in the market were determined, as well as the in vitro capacity for inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipoxygenase, tyrosinase, xanthine oxidase and hyaluronidase.

The results showed that samples 1 (region Fez-Boulemane, Sefrou city) (IC50 = 0.065, 0.006, 0.020, 0.050, 0.014 mg mL−1) and 23 (marketed) (IC50 = 0.018, 0.002, 0.046, 0.037, 0.008 mg mL−1) had the best in vitro capacity for inhibiting the α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase activities, respectively. A negative correlation between IC50 values and concentration of phenols, flavones and flavanones was found. These activities corresponded to the generally higher amounts of phenols and flavonoids.

In the same region, propolis samples have dissimilar phenol content and enzyme inhibitory activities.