Friday, May 24, 2024

Propolis Alleviates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Heat-Inactivated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus via Regulating Inflammatory Mediators, Gut Microbiota and Serum Metabolites

Propolis has potential anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about its efficacy against inflammatory reactions caused by drug-resistant bacteria, and the difference in efficacy between propolis and tree gum is also unclear. Here, an in vivo study was performed to study the effects of ethanol extract from poplar propolis (EEP) and poplar tree gum (EEG) against heat-inactivated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Pre-treatment with EEP and EEG (100 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in significant protective effects on ALI in mice, and EEP exerted stronger activity to alleviate lung tissue lesions and ALI scores compared with that of EEG. Furthermore, EEP significantly suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in the lung, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Gut microbiota analysis revealed that both EEP and EEG could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, enhance the abundance of beneficial microbiota and reduce the harmful ones, and partly restore the levels of short-chain fatty acids. EEP could modulate more serum metabolites and showed a more robust correlation between serum metabolites and gut microbiota. Overall, these results support the anti-inflammatory effects of propolis in the treatment of ALI, and the necessity of the quality control of propolis.