Friday, May 31, 2019

Antibacterial Properties of Propolis

Molecules. 2019 May 29;24(11). pii: E2047

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Researchers are continuing to discover all the properties of propolis due to its complex composition and associated broad spectrum of activities.

This review aims to characterize the latest scientific reports in the field of antibacterial activity of this substance. The results of studies on the influence of propolis on more than 600 bacterial strains were analyzed.

The greater activity of propolis against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative was confirmed. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of propolis from different regions of the world was compared. As a result, high activity of propolis from the Middle East was found in relation to both, Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) strains. Simultaneously, the lowest activity was demonstrated for propolis samples from Germany, Ireland and Korea.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Honey, in Combination with Black Seed, Helps Control Asthma

Honey in Bronchial Asthma: From Folk Tales to Scientific Facts

J Med Food. 2019 May 24

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Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly used for treating bronchial asthma.

Ten electronic databases were searched to investigate whether honey alone or in combination with other ingredients can be considered as the potential treatment for bronchial asthma.

Combinations of honey and Nigella sativa (NS) showed significant improvement in all pulmonary functions, including forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (MD = 0.52, P < .001), forced vital capacity (FVC) (MD = 0.55, P = .002), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (MD = 80.60, P < .001), in both moderate and severe, uncontrolled persistent asthma compared with baseline. 

Asthma control test scores also improved significantly (MD = 11.22, P < .001) in patients using combinations of honey and NS compared with baseline. Patients with a less severe grade of asthma showed a significant positive response in clinical parameters upon using honey.

One study showed that using celery seeds and honey was associated with clinical improvement of both lung functions, FEV1 (MD = 18.09, P < .001) and FVC (MD = 24.23, P < .001), and respiratory parameters compared with baseline.

In conclusion, honey alone has no strong evidence of being effective in controlling asthma. However, when used in combination with other substances, it showed a relatively high efficacy in patients with asthma. This finding may help in asthma control with lower cost alternatives and better outcomes.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Royal Jelly May Help Treat High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Royal jelly causes hypotension and vasodilation induced by increasing nitric oxide production

Food Sci Nutr. 2019 Feb 17;7(4):1361-1370

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Among royal jelly's (RJ) various biological activities, its possible antihypertension and vasorelaxation effects deserve particular attention, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear.

Therefore, this study used the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) hypertension model and the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta rings model to explore the mechanisms underlying the hypotension and vasorelaxation effects of RJ.

Rats were divided into the following groups (n = 6): WKY-control group, SHR-control group, and SHR-RJ group. SHR-RJ group was received 1 g/kg of RJ via oral administration daily for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and nitric oxide (NO) level were detected. In addition, the mechanism of vasodilation of RJ was investigated using an isolated rabbit aortic ring technique. RJ significantly reduced SBP and DBP as well as increased NO levels of SHR in vivo. RJ caused vasorelaxation of the isolated aorta rings, and this effect was inhibited by atropine (M3 receptor blocker), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor), and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor).

Moreover, RJ could markedly suppress the NE-induced intracellular Ca2+ releases and high K+-induced extracellular Ca2+ influx in denuded aortic rings. In addition, RJ can also increase cGMP levels and the production of NO in isolated aortic rings.

The present study showed that RJ has antihypertensive effects and was associated with increased NO production. In addition, RJ contains muscarinic receptor agonist, possibly an acetylcholine-like substance, and induces vasodilation through NO/cGMP pathway and calcium channels.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Propolis Component Could Help Treat Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Head and Neck Cancer)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppressed growth and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inactivating the NF-κB pathway

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019 Apr 26;13:1335-1345

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Purpose: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the main polyphenol extracted from honeybee propolis, which inhibits the growth of several kinds of tumor. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of CAPE in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), evaluate the synergistic action of CAPE in radiotherapy sensitivity of NPC cell lines and further elucidate the possible molecular mechanism involved.

Materials and methods: CCK-8 assay was used to analyze cell proliferation ability. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the clonogenic ability and radio-sensitiveness of NPC cells by CAPE treatment. Wound-healing and transwell assay were used to assess the motility of cells. The expression of key molecules of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was determined by western blot analysis and changes in radiation sensitivity were measured by colony-formation assay. cDNA microarray analysis was used to determine differentially expressed genes with and without CAPE treatment, with Gene Ontology enrichment of gene function and KEGG pathways determined. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis.

Results: CAPE suppressed the viability of NPC cell lines time- and dose-dependently. It induced apoptosis in NPC cells along with decreased expression of Bcl-XL and increased cleavage of PARP and expression of Bax. G1 phase arrest was induced by CAPE with ower expression of CDK4, CDK6, Rb and p-Rb. The migratory and invasive ability of NPC cells was decreased by the EMT pathway. The irradiation sensitivity of NPC cells was enhanced with CAPE treatment. CAPE specifically inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by suppressing p65 subunit translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. CAPE treatment was synergistic with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Conclusion: CAPE may inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of NPC cells but enhance radiosensitivity in NPC therapy by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. CAPE could be a potential therapeutic compound for NPC therapy.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Kānuka Honey Just as Good as Acyclovir for Treating Cold Sores (Herpes Simplex Virus)

A Special Type of Honey Might Be Just as Effective For Cold Sores as Regular Creams 

Science Alert

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...The researchers combined kānuka honey with glycerol and compared the mix with a cream of 5 percent. Each topical treatment was then allotted randomly to 952 volunteers, who were instructed to apply treatment within the first 72 hours of noticing an outbreak, repeating it five times a day until the blisters vanished.

Tallying up the figures, those who used the acyclovir on average experienced symptoms for 8 to 9 days, and had an open blister for about 2 days.

For those who used honey, the results weren't significantly different, suggesting there just might be something to these claims after all...

Friday, May 24, 2019

Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Muscle Injuries

Melittin - A bee venom component - Enhances muscle regeneration factors expression in a mouse model of skeletal muscle contusion

J Pharmacol Sci. 2019 May 4. pii: S1347-8613(19)31050-3

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Melittin is a major peptide component of sweet bee venom that possesses anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritis, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties. However, the therapeutic effects of melittin on muscle injury have not been elucidated.

We investigated the therapeutic effects of melittin on muscle injury in a mouse model of muscle contusion. The biceps femoris muscle of the mice was injured using drop mass method, and the animals were treated with melittin (4, 20, or 100 μg/kg) for 7 days. Melittin significantly increased: locomotor activity in open field test, and treadmill running activity in a dose-dependent manner to level comparable to the positive control, diclofenac (30 mg/kg). Melittin treatment attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokine MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6.

The expression of muscle regeneration biomarkers, including MyoD (muscle differentiation marker), myogenin, smooth muscle actin, and myosin heavy chain was markedly increased in the injured muscle tissue of melittin-treated mice, as determined by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

These results demonstrate that melittin inhibits inflammatory response and improves muscle damage by regenerating muscles in a mouse model of muscle contusion. Taken together, the results of present study suggest that melittin is a promising candidate for the muscle injury treatment.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Cancer in Smokers

Detoxification effects of aloe polysaccharide and propolis on the urinary excretion of metabolites in smokers

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Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 May 18. pii: S0278-6915(19)30296-0

The aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxifying effects of aloe polysaccharide (APS), propolis, and the mixture of APS and propolis on the urinary excretion of major human tobacco carcinogens, BaP and an addictive stimulant alkaloid, nicotine. Smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day) were randomly classified into four subgroups (10 people/group) and were given 600 mg/day of APS, 600 mg/day of propolis, or 600 mg/day of the mixture of APS (420 mg/day) and propolis (180 mg/day) for four weeks.

Urinary excretion of BaP and cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine) increased in a time-dependent manner increased after supplementation with APS (BaP, 2.23-fold; cotinine, 2.64-fold), propolis (BaP, 1.30-fold; cotinine, 2.08-fold), and the mixture (BaP, 2.33-fold; cotinine, 2.28-fold) compared with smoker control. Creatinine, glucose, and total bilirubin levels significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner after supplementation with APS (creatinine, 15.24%; glucose, 40.22%; total bilirubin, 48.82%), propolis (creatinine, 16.83%; glucose, 36.25%; total bilirubin, 52.59%), and the mixture (creatinine, 16.36%; glucose, 46.37%; total bilirubin, 39.20%) (p < 0.05).

These results suggest that supplementation with APS, propolis, or the mixture could reduce the risk of cancer or other diseases associated with tobacco smoking by enhancing urinary excretion of BaP and nicotine.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Manuka Honey May Help Treat Lung Infections in Those Suffering from Cystic Fibrosis

Anti-pseudomonad Activity of Manuka Honey and Antibiotics in a Specialized ex vivo Model Simulating Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection

Front Microbiol. 2019 Apr 24;10:869

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes problematic chronic lung infections in those suffering from cystic fibrosis. This is due to its antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and its ability to form robust biofilm communities with increased antimicrobial tolerances.

Using novel antimicrobials or repurposing current ones is required in order to overcome these problems. Manuka honey is a natural antimicrobial agent that has been used for many decades in the treatment of chronic surface wounds with great success, particularly those infected with P. aeruginosa. Here we aim to determine whether the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey could potentially be repurposed to inhibit pulmonary P. aeruginosa infections using two ex vivo models. P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 28) from an international panel were tested for their susceptibility to manuka honey and clinically relevant antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin), alone and in combination, using conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST).

To increase clinical applicability, two ex vivo porcine lung (EVPL) models (using alveolar and bronchiolar tissue) were used to determine the anti-biofilm effects of manuka honey alone and in combination with antibiotics. All P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to manuka honey, however, varying incidences of resistance were seen against antibiotics.

The combination of sub-inhibitory manuka honey and antibiotics using conventional AST had no effect on activity against the majority of isolates tested. Using the two ex vivo models, 64% (w/v) manuka honey inhibited many of the isolates where abnormally high concentrations of antibiotics could not. Typically, combinations of both manuka honey and antibiotics had increased antimicrobial activity.

These results highlight the potential of manuka honey as a future antimicrobial for the treatment of pulmonary P. aeruginosa isolates, clearing potential infection reservoirs within the upper airway.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Today is World Bee Day

About the project World Bee Day

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Slovenia proposed that the United Nations (UN) proclaim 20 May as World Bee Day. On 20 December 2017, following three years of efforts at the international level, the UN Member States unanimously approved Slovenia’s proposal, thus proclaiming 20 May as World Bee Day.

The purpose of the website is to present the initiative and its implementation, raise awareness of the importance of bees and beekeeping, inform the public of major beekeeping events around the world and celebrate World Bee Day....

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Propolis as an Alternative Antibiotic for Root Canals

An In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis, Morinda Citrifolia Juice, Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019 Jan 1;20(1):40-45.

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To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of Propolis, Morinda citrifolia juice, Sodium hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine on Enterococcus feacalis (E. feacalis) and Candida albicans (C. albicans), as endodontic irrigants.


Four clinical isolates and one standard ATCC sample (29212) of E. feacalis and ATCC sample (90028) of C. albicans were inoculated into 5ml of peptone water each and incubated at 37° C for 3 to 4 hours to attain the turbidity corresponding to 0.5 McFarland standard CFU. We followed Disc and well diffusion Kirby-Bauer method to attain the zones of inhibition.


Overall comparison of reagents revealed a significant difference among zones of inhibition. The standard concentration of 5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 10% Propolis and 100% Morinda citrifolia juice illustrated the maximum inhibition zone for both test organisms.


All four reagents had an antimicrobial effect on the microorganisms tested. Sodium hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine were more effectual than Propolis and Morinda citrifolia juice and there was increased antimicrobial efficacy with increasing concentrations.


A study for finding safe herbal agents that can be used as endodontic irrigants revealed that Propolis, Morinda citrifolia juice has antibiotic properties and can replace routinely used agents thereby limiting the side effects.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Biological Activities of Propolis From Sicily (Italy), Croatia, Malta, Creta (Greece), Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Libya, Algeria and Morocco

Insight on propolis from Mediterranean countries chemical composition, biological activities and application fields

Chem Biodivers. 2019 May 17

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This review updates the information upon the chemical composition of propolis from all Mediterranean countries as well as their biological properties and applications. The non-volatile fraction of propolis was characterized by the presence of phenolic acids and their esters, and flavonoids. Nevertheless in some countries, diterpenes were also present: Sicily (Italy), Croatia, Malta, Creta (Greece), Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Lybia, Algeria and Morocco. The volatile fraction of propolis was characterized by the presence of benzoic acid and its esters, mono- and sesquiterpenes, being the oxygenated sesquiterpene β-eudesmol characteristic of poplar propolis, whereas the hydrocarbon monoterpene α-pinene has been related with the presence of conifers. Regardless the chemical composition, there are common biological properties attributed to propolis, Owing to these attributes, propolis has been target of study for applications in diverse areas, such as food, medicine and livestock.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Iranian Propolis Reduces Blood Glucose, Insulin Resistance, May Help Treat Liver and Kidney Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

The Effect of Iranian Propolis on Glucose Metabolism, Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, Renal Function and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

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Sci Rep. 2019 May 13;9(1):7289

Propolis is a natural product with many biological properties including hypoglycemic activity and modulating lipid profile.

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Iranian propolis extract on glucose metabolism, Lipid profile, Insulin resistance, renal and liver function as well as inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. The duration of the study lasted 90 days. Patients with T2DM were recruited and randomly divided into an Iranian propolis group (1000 mg/day) (n = 50) and a placebo group (n = 44).

There was a significant decrease in the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 2-hour post prandial (2hpp), insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, there was a notable elevation in the serum HDL-C in the propolis group compared with the placebo group.

In addition, a notable reduction in serum liver transaminase (ALT and AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations in the propolis group was observed.

Iranian propolis has beneficial effects on reducing post prandial blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines. It is also a useful treatment for preventing the liver and renal dysfunction, as well as, elevating HDL-C concentrations in patients with T2DM.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Could bee stings help treat arthritis?

Dr. Sanjay Gupta travels to Turkey, where doctors like Ali Timucin use bee venom to treat ALS, arthritis and multiple sclerosis. For more, watch "Chasing Life with Dr. Sanjay Gupta" Saturday at 9 p.m. ET/PT.

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Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Pakistani Beri Honey Could Be Alternative Treatment for Infected Wounds

Antibacterial activity of Pakistani Beri honey compared with silver sulfadiazine on infected wounds: a clinical trial

J Wound Care. 2019 May 2;28(5):291-296

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To determine the antibacterial activity of Pakistani Beri honey in patients with infected wounds in comparison with silver sulfadiazine.


Inpatients with infected wounds at a tertiary care hospital were divided in to three equal-sized treatment groups. In Group A, patients were treated with non-Gamma irradiated Beri honey. In Group B, Gamma irradiated Beri honey was used, and in Group C silver sulfadiazine was used. Treatment was for a period of four weeks. Pus swabs were taken at day zero and weeks one and four of treatment. Bacteria were identified using the analytical profile index system API 20E, 20NE and API Staph and antimicrobial susceptibility was done as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010 guidelines.


A total of 90 patients with wounds (n = 90) took part in the trial. Out of 90 wounds, 47% were post-traumatic and 37% were postoperative. Overall, average length, width and depth of Group A patients' wounds were significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). Out of 144 pus swabs; 99 and 45 were Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci, respectively. Among these Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 25) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 38) were the major pathogens. Interestingly, bacterial load gradually decreased from baseline to week four due to non-Gamma irradiated Beri honey. Moreover, both the Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci displayed 100% resistance to commonly used antibiotics; the most effective drugs were carbapenem and vancomycin.


Pakistani Beri honey could be used as an alternative therapeutic option for the management of infected wounds.

Monday, May 13, 2019

The Surprising Health Benefits of Honey

YAHOO! Lifestyle

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Recent studies have shown that eating honey creates a protective barrier in your throat that may prevent infections. (Honey also has antimicrobial properties.) Boost your immune system and kick your cough with these sweet picks...

Saturday, May 11, 2019

Honey Shows Antibacterial Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Antibacterial Activity of Honey against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Laboratory-Based Experimental Study

Int J Microbiol. 2019 Apr 3;2019:7686130

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Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the serious issues this world is facing nowadays, and increased cost of searching for effective antimicrobial agents and the decreased rate of new drug discovery have made the situation increasingly worrisome.


The aim of this study is to determine in vitro antibacterial activity of honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from wound infection.


An experimental study was conducted from May to November 2017. Methicillin resistance was detected using cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) antibiotic discs. Different concentrations of honey (25-100% v/v) were tested against each type of clinical isolates obtained from wound infection. A preliminary sensitivity test was done to all types of honey by using disk diffusion while minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined for the most potent honey by the broth dilution technique. All statistical analysis was performed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.


In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were recovered from 50 specimens, showing an isolation rate of 72%. The predominant bacteria isolated from the infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus (15, 41.7%). Among identified Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistance accounts for 10 isolates (27.8%). All isolates showed a high frequency of resistance to tetracycline. Four collected honey varieties exhibited antibacterial activity, while the strongest inhibitory activity was demonstrated by honey-2 at 75% v/v. The mean MIC and MBC of honey-2 ranged from 9.38 to 37.5% v/v.


Tested honey has both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. Among the tested honey, "honey-2" had high antibacterial potency than others.

Friday, May 10, 2019

Sonoran Desert Propolis Inhibits Cancer Tumor Growth

Plant origin authentication of Sonoran Desert propolis: an antiproliferative propolis from a semi-arid region

Naturwissenschaften. 2019 May 8;106(5-6):25

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The main chemical composition of Sonoran propolis (SP), as well as its antiproliferative activity on cancer cells through apoptosis induction, has been reported. The chemical constitution of SP remained qualitatively similar throughout the year, whereas the antiproliferative effect on cancer cells exhibited significant differences amongst seasonal samples.

The main goal of this study was to provide phytochemical and pharmacological evidence for the botanical source of SP and its antiproliferative constituents. A chemical comparative analysis of SP and plant resins of species found in the surrounding areas of the beehives was carried out by HPLC-UV-DAD, as well as by 1H NMR experiments. The antiproliferative activity on cancerous (M12.C3.F6, HeLa, A549, PC-3) and normal cell lines (L-929; ARPE-19) was assessed through MTT assays. Here, the main polyphenolic profile of SP resulted to be qualitatively similar to Populus fremontii resins (PFR). However, the antiproliferative activity of PFR on cancer cells did not consistently match that exhibited by SP throughout the year.

Additionally, SP induced morphological modifications on treated cells characterised by elongation, similar to those induced by colchicine, and different to those observed with PFR treatment. These results suggest that P. fremontii is the main botanical source of SP along the year. Nevertheless, the antiproliferative constituents of SP that induce that characteristic morphological elongation on treated cells are not obtained from PFR. Moreover, the presence of kaempferol-3-methyl-ether in SP could point Ambrosia ambrosioides as a secondary plant source.

In conclusion, SP is a bioactive poplar-type propolis from semi-arid zones, in which chemical compounds derived from other semi-arid plant sources than poplar contribute to its antiproliferative activity.

Thursday, May 09, 2019

Red Propolis Inhibits Tumor Growth

Red propolis and L-lysine on angiogenesis and tumor growth in a new model of hamster cheek pouch inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells.

Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2019 May 2;17(2):eAO4576

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To evaluate the effect of red propolis and L-lysine on angiogenesis and tumor growth in a new model of hamster cheek pouch inoculated with Walker 256 tumor cells.


The study consisted of two experiments with four groups each (total: 57 hamsters). In the experiment 1, the animals were inoculated with Walker tumor cells, followed by administration of test substances (red propolis 200mg/5mL/kg or L-lysine 150mg/kg) or control substances (gum arabic 5mL/kg or water 5mL/kg) for 10 days. The animals in the experiment 2 received red propolis, L-lysine, gum arabic or water at the same doses, for 33 days prior to inoculation of Walker tumor cells, followed by 10 days of treatment with the same substances. Based on single-plane images, angiogenesis was quantified (mean vascular area), in percentage, and tumor area (mm2) and perimeter (mm).

In the experiment 1, compared to animals receiving water, the mean vascular area expressed in percentage was significantly smaller in animal treated with propolis (p < 0.05) and L-lysine (p < 0.001).


Both red propolis and L-lysine inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the new hamster cheek pouch model when administered after tumor inoculation.

Wednesday, May 08, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Blindness

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester attenuates nuclear factor‑κB‑mediated inflammatory responses in Müller cells and protects against retinal ganglion cell death

Mol Med Rep. 2019 Apr 11

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Glaucoma is characterized by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and visual field defects, and is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural polyphenolic found in propolis from honeybee hives, can inhibit the activation of nuclear factor κ light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) and has therapeutic potential in inflammatory disease.

The present study used a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury to investigate the effect of CAPE on glaucoma. The death of RGCs at day 14 was significantly reduced in CAPE‑treated animals compared with the non‑treated group according to Brn3a and TUNEL staining. In addition, CAPE decreased the severity of inflammation in the retina, reflected by the decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑8, IL‑6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cycloooxygenase‑2, tumor necrosis factor‑α and chemokine C‑C ligand‑2, in CAPE‑treated rats. The hypertrophy of astrocytes and Müller cells (gliosis) caused by ONC was also found to be attenuated by CAPE, accompanied by the inhibition of NF‑κB signaling. Similarly, in vitro,

CAPE suppressed the proliferation and migration of primary astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide, as well as the activation of NF‑κB.

These results suggest that CAPE protected against RGC and attenuated inflammatory responses in a rat model of ONC by suppressing NF‑κB activation.

Tuesday, May 07, 2019

Propolis Extract Boosts Wound Healing

Cornstarch-based wound dressing incorporated with hyaluronic acid and propolis: In vitro and in vivo studies

Carbohydr Polym. 2019 Jul 15;216:25-35

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The unique physicochemical and functional characteristics of starch-based biomaterials and wound dressings have been proposed for several biomedical applications. Film dressings of cornstarch/hyaluronic acid/ ethanolic extract of propolis (CS/HA/EEP) were prepared by solvent-casting and characterized by attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, light transmission, opacity measurements, EEP release, equilibrium swelling, and in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

The CS/HA/0.5%EEP film dressing exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (2.08 ± 0.14 mm), Escherichia coli (2.64 ± 0.18 mm), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.02 ± 0.15 mm) in comparison with the CS, CS/HA, and CS/HA/0.25%EEP films. Also, it showed no cytotoxicity for the L929 fibroblast cells. This wound dressing could effectively accelerate the wound healing process at Wistar rats' skin excisions.

These results indicate that enrichment of cornstarch wound dressings with HA and EEP can significantly enhance their potential efficacy as wound dressing material.

Sunday, May 05, 2019

Ultrasonic Treatment Has Greater Wall-Disruption Effects on Rose (Rosa rugosa) Bee Pollen, Boosts Functional Food Properties

Effect of ultrasonic and ball-milling treatment on cell wall, nutrients and antioxidant capacity of rose (Rosa rugosa) bee pollen, as well as identification of bioactive components

J Sci Food Agric. 2019 May 3

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Bee pollen has been regarded as a complete nutrition supplement for human diet, but the nutrient absorption and biological activities may be restricted by the complex pollen wall. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ultrasonic and ball-milling treatment on nutritional components release and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of rose (Rosa rugosa) bee pollen.


After wall-breaking treatments, the bee pollen walls were broken in varying degrees, nutrients were released and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of bee pollen were improved. The scavenging activities of DPPH and ABTS radicals as well as ORAC were improved. In aging mice, wall-breaking treatments led to better organ recovery, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities enhancements and malondialdehyde (MDA) reduction. In addition, eight compounds of rose bee pollen ethanol extract including Isorhamnetin 3-O-diglucoside and N', N″, N‴-Dicaffeoyl p-coumaroyl spermidine were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS assay.


This study showed that the ultrasonic treatment had greater wall-disruption effects of bee pollen on nutrients release and antioxidant activities promotion. In conclusion, rose bee pollen under wall-breaking treatments may have potential application value as ingredient in functional food processing.

Friday, May 03, 2019

Propolis Flavonoid May Help Treat Chronic Illnesses Such as Cardiovascular Disease, Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Diabetes

Pinocembrin Protects from AGE-Induced Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Non-Enzymatic Glycation in Human Insulin

Cells. 2019 Apr 26;8(5). pii: E385

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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the end products of the glycation reaction and have a great importance in clinical science for their association with oxidative stress and inflammation, which play a major role in most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes.

Their pathogenic effects are generally induced by the interaction between AGEs and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) on the cell surface, which triggers reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activation, and inflammation. Pinocembrin, the most abundant flavonoid in propolis, has been recently proven to interfere with RAGE activation in Aβ-RAGE-induced toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the ability of pinocembrin to interfere with RAGE signaling pathways activated by AGEs.

Interestingly, pinocembrin was able to inhibit oxidative stress and NF-kB activation in cells exposed to AGEs. In addition, it was able to block caspase 3/7 and 9 activation, thus suggesting an active role of this molecule in counteracting AGE-RAGE-induced toxicity mediated by NF-kB signaling pathways. The ability of pinocembrin to affect the glycation reaction has been also tested. Our data suggest that pinocembrin might be a promising molecule in protecting from AGE-mediated pathogenesis.

Thursday, May 02, 2019

Propolis Helps Treat Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetic Patients

Effects of Brazilian green propolis on proteinuria and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

BMC Nephrol. 2019 Apr 25;20(1):140

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide, and proteinuria is a well-established marker of disease progression in CKD patients. Propolis, a natural resin produced by bees from plant materials, has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-oxidant properties, as well as having been shown to have an antiproteinuric effect in experimental CKD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Brazilian green propolis extract on proteinuria reduction and the changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).


This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study including patients with CKD caused by diabetes or of another etiology, 18-90 years of age, with an eGFR of 25-70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and proteinuria (urinary protein excretion > 300 mg/day) or micro- or macro-albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g or > 300 mg/g, respectively). We screened 148 patients and selected 32, randomly assigning them to receive 12 months of Brazilian green propolis extract at a dose of 500 mg/day (n = 18) or 12 months of a placebo (n = 14).


At the end of treatment, proteinuria was significantly lower in the propolis group than in the placebo group-695 mg/24 h (95% CI, 483 to 999) vs. 1403 mg/24 h (95% CI, 1031 to 1909); P = 0.004-independent of variations in eGFR and blood pressure, which did not differ between the groups during follow-up. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also significantly lower in the propolis group than in the placebo group-58 pg/mg creatinine (95% CI, 36 to 95) vs. 98 pg/mg creatinine (95% CI, 62 to 155); P = 0.038.


Brazilian green propolis extract was found to be safe and well tolerated, as well as to reduce proteinuria significantly in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic CKD.

Wednesday, May 01, 2019

Algerian Propolis Protects Heart from Oxidative Damage

Myocardial protection by propolis during prolonged hypothermic preservation

Cryobiology. 2019 Apr 11. pii: S0011-2240(19)30009-4

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Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion during myocardial transplantation. Therefore, graft preservation solutions may be improved by supplementation with antioxidants to minimize graft dysfunction caused by cold ischemic injury.

Propolis is a polyphenol-rich substance which has an important antioxidant activity. The protective effect of propolis against oxidative stress induced by prolonged cold preservation of heart was investigated. Mice were subjected to a hypothermic model of ischemia in which hearts were preserved for 24 h at 4 °C in Krebs-Hensleit (KH) solution in the absence or presence of propolis concentrations (50, 150 and 250 μg/ml). Levels of released Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and Troponine-I (Trop I) were assessed in the preservation solution and histological assessement of heart ischemia injuries was performed. Oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assessed in cardiac tissue.

Mitochondria were isolated from stored hearts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested. Propolis supplementation protected efficiently hearts during preservation by reducing significantly levels of lipids and proteins oxidation and restoring activities of antioxidant enzymes. Also, propolis preserved tissue integrity altered by hypothermic ischemia in a concentration-dependent manner.

Propolis reduced significantly the rate of H2O2 produced by mitochondrial respiration, the best antioxidant effect being obtained at the highest propolis concentration (250 μg/ml). Algerian propolis is a non-temperature sensitive scavenger that protects heart from oxidative damage induced by prolonged hypothermic ischemia.