Friday, June 22, 2018

Polish Propolis Shows Antifungal Activity

Antifungal Activity and Synergism with Azoles of Polish Propolis

Pathogens. 2018 Jun 19;7(2). pii: E56

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The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents.

The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish apiaries, was tested on a group of 69 clinical isolates of C. albicans. Most of the EEPs showed satisfactory activity, with minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) mainly in the range of 0.08⁻1.25% (v/v). Eradication of biofilm from polystyrene microtitration plates in 50% (MBEC50, Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration) required concentrations in the range of 0.04% (v/v) to more than 1.25% (v/v).

High activity was also observed in eradication of biofilm formed by C. glabrata and C. krusei on the surfaces of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and silicone catheters. EEPs at subinhibitory concentrations inhibited yeast-to-mycelia morphological transformation of C. albicans in liquid medium and mycelial growth on solid medium. A synergistic effect was observed for the action of EEP in combination with fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. albicans.

In the presence of EEP at concentrations as low as 0.02%, the MICs of FLU and VOR were 256 to 32 times lower in comparison to those of the drug alone. Evidence for the fungal cell membrane as the most probable target of EEPs are presented.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Honey Reduces Injuries in Children Who Swallow Button Batteries

Eating honey can reduce serious injuries in children who swallowed button battery, shows study

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June 11, 2018

A team of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists has demonstrated that eating honey after swallowing a button battery has the potential to reduce serious injuries in small children. Based on findings in laboratory animals, the research suggests that this common household product may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from highly caustic batteries.

"Button batteries are ingested by children more 2,500 times a year in the United States, with more than a 12-fold increase in fatal outcomes in the last decade compared to the prior decade," said Co-Principal Investigator, Ian N. Jacobs, MD, Director of the Center for Pediatric Airway Disorders and a pediatric otolaryngologist at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). "Since serious damage can occur within two hours of ingesting a battery, the interval between ingestion and removal is a critical time to act in order to reduce esophageal injury."...

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Honey Improves Lipid Profile Such as; Total Cholesterol, TG and LDL and Increases HDL, But Consumption of Sugar Increases Total Cholesterol, TG and LDL and Decreases HDL

The effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on lipid profile in young healthy subjects (randomized clinical trial)

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Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Aug;26:8-12


Several studies have demonstrated that honey consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease indicators. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on lipid profile among young healthy subjects.


Sixty healthy subjects, aged 18-30 years, were randomly recruited into this double blind randomized trial and assigned into two groups: honey (received 70 g honey per day) and sucrose (received 70 g sucrose per day) groups. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL were measured in the control and intervention groups at the beginning and end of study.


In this trial, the baseline FBS, SBP and DBP were not different between honey and sucrose groups (P > 0.3). We found evidence indicating consumption of honey can decrease total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL in healthy young subjects, but intake of sucrose increase total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreased HDL. In all of these analyses, confounding variable including age, physical activity and some nutrient intake were adjusted.


Honey consumption can improve the lipid profile such as; total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL, but consumption of sucrose increases total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreases HDL. Further clinical trial studies are required to confirm our findings.

Monday, June 18, 2018

Brazilian Propolis Boosts Wound Healing

Evaluation and Comparison of Wound Healing Properties of an Ointment (AlpaWash) Containing Brazilian Micronized Propolis and Peucedanum ostruthium Leaf Extract in Skin Ulcer in Rats

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Int J Pharm Compd. 2018 Mar-Apr;22(2):154-163

Several previous studies have demonstrated improved wound healing associated with natural-based formulations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a topical formulation containing both a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and a Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract for the treatment of wounds created by surgical punch in rats.

The study was conducted for 14 days and animals were treated as follows: gauze group (G), polyethylene glycol base ointment (Control), AlpaWash (an ointment containing a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract [Treatment]), and polysporin (one of the most commonly used topical antibiotic ointments, based on bacitracin zinc and polymyxin B sulfate [Reference Standard]).

In general, the results demonstrated that ointments, due to occlusiveness and the ability to maintain moisture under the damaged area, offered improvements when compared to lesions without any treatment. Additionally, the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as antioxidants and antimicrobials, offered improved stimulation and could accelerate wound healing. The Control, Treatment, and Reference Standard groups were able to close the lesion, as measured by the wound healing rate determination and follow-up photographs. However, AlpaWash and Polysporin presented some additional benefits- anti-inflammatory activity, measured using myeloperoxidase and histological count, as well as fibroplasia and hydroxyproline production, suggesting that skin with a better quality could be formed following these two treatments.

Therefore, based on the current concern of antibiotic overuse in wound healing, the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and the decrease in newer antibiotics, AlpaWash is considered a prominent formulation to be employed in wound-healing applications.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Propolis Promotes Bone Healing

Propolis extract a new reinforcement material in improving bone healing: an in vivo study

Int J Surg. 2018 Jun 11. pii: S1743-9191(18)31498-5


Propolis is known for its antioxidant, immune response modulating, and wound healing effects. In the present study in order to determine the bone healing capacity of the propolis extract, a critical sized, nonunion, radial bone defect model was repaired in rat, using chitosan and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds along with propolis extract.


Seventy-two radial bone defects in 36 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n= 12/group). The groups included autograft, defect or untreated group, chitosan, DBM, chitosan and propolis (chitosan-propolis), and DBM and propolis (DBM-propolis). The bone repairing capability was characterized using radiography at 28th, 42nd and 56th postoperative days. Gross morphologic, histopathologic, histomorphometric and biomechanical examinations were performed following euthanasia at the 56th post-operative day.


The DBM-propolis group, showed better structural and biomechanical properties compared to the untreated, DBM, chitosan and chitosan-propolis groups. The defect site in the chitosan and untreated groups were mainly restored by fibrous connective tissue while the lesions in the autograft group were mostly filled by cartilage and a lesser amount of woven bone. The woven bone, and the hyaline cartilage were the main constituents of the newly formed tissues in the DBM-propolis group, at the 56th day after injury.


The results of this study showed that percutaneous injection of diluted aqueous propolis extract in the bone defect (25 mg/defect) can improve bone formation in the critical radial bone defect in rat. Since there was no significant difference between the autograft and DBM-propolis group, probably this therapeutic strategy has high potential in augmentation of autologous bone grafting.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Honey Bee Larvae Powder May Help Prevent, Treat Cancer

Anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities of honey bee larvae powder by suppressing the expression of EZH2

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Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun 12;105:690-696

Honey bee larvae products have been widely used as traditional daily supplements and complementary medicine for health promotion. However, there is little scientific evidence about their bioactivities.

This study was designed to examine the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of honey bee larvae powder (HLP) and explore the underlying mechanism.

A subcutaneous transplantation model (murine breast cancer cell 4T1-LUC) and lung metastasis model (murine melanoma cell B16-F10) were established to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of HLP. Honey bee larvae powder extract (HLE) was obtained by 70% ethanol extraction, and its chemical composition was determined according to physiochemical methods. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was performed to test the cytotoxicity of HLE, and qRT-PCR assays were conducted to examine the mRNA levels of tumor marker EZH2 in HLE-treated tumor cells. \

In vivo xenograft tumor assays in BALB/c mice revealed dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and lung metastasis showing an inhibition rate of 37.5% and 70.4% at 6 g/kg HLP-administered group with no toxicity to the animals. In vitro studies indicated that HLE showed no cytotoxicity to cancer cells at doses up to 1000 μg/mL, however, it significantly decreased EZH2 mRNA levels in HLE (1000 μg/mL)-treated B10-F10 cells (28.49%) and 4T1-LUC cells (26.75%).

Further studies to elucidate the mechanisms involved and to isolate the active components of honey bee larva may provide more valuable information for its development and application in cancer treatment.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Antibacterial Activity of Honeydew Honey Equivalent to Medical-Grade Manuka and Kanuka Honey

Phytochemicals-mediated production of hydrogen peroxide is crucial for high antibacterial activity of honeydew honey

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Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 13;8(1):9061

Honeydew honey is increasingly valued due to its pronounced antibacterial potential; however, the underlying mechanism and compounds responsible for the strong antibacterial activity of honeydew honey are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth of 23 honeydew honey samples. Activity of bee-derived glucose oxidase (GOX) enzyme, the content of defensin-1 (Def-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and total polyphenol content were determined in the 23 honey samples.

Our results demonstrated that antibacterial activity of honeydew honey was equivalent to medical-grade manuka and kanuka honey and was abolished by catalase. Although H2O2 is an important factor in the inhibition of bacterial growth, polyphenolic compounds and their interaction with H2O2 are the key factors responsible for high antibacterial activity of honeydew honey. In addition, our results indicated that the antibacterial activity of honeydew honey is not dependent on GOX-mediated production of H2O2 or the presence of Def-1.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Honey Debrides Wounds, Kills Bacteria, Penetrates Biofilm, Lowers Wound pH, Reduces Chronic Inflammation, and Promotes Fibroblast Infiltration

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Honey-Based Templates in Wound Healing and Tissue Engineering

Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 46

Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities.

Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success.

This review details the current state of the field, including challenges which have yet to be overcome, and makes recommendations for the direction of future research in order to develop effective tissue regeneration therapies.

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat Colitis

Propolis from Different Geographic Origins Suppress Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of DSS-Induced Colitis is Associated with Decreased Bacteroides spp. in the Gut

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Jun 11:e1800080

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Dietary supplementation with polyphenol-rich propolis can protect against experimentally-induced colitis. We examined whether different polyphenol compositions of Chinese propolis (CP) and Brazilian propolis (BP) influences their ability to protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.


HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS analysis confirmed that polyphenol compositions of CP and BP were dissimilar. Rats were given CP or BP by gavage (300 mg/kg body weight) throughout the study, starting 1 week prior to DSS treatment for 1 week followed by 3 d without DSS. CP and BP significantly reduced the colitis disease activity index relative to controls not receiving propolis, prevented significant DSS-induced colonic tissue damage and increased resistance to DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress as shown by reduced malonaldehyde levels and increased T-AOC levels. CP and BP significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic apoptosis. Colonic inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were suppressed by CP and BP, whereas only BP induced expression of TGF-β. CP, not BP, increased the diversity and richness of gut microbiota populations. Both forms of propolis significantly reduced populations of Bacteroides spp.


Despite the dissimilar polyphenol compositions of CP and BP, their ability to protect against DSS-induced colitis is similar. Nevertheless, some different physiological impacts were observed.

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Bee Venom Acupuncture 'Safe and Effective Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Bee-venom Acupuncture. [Article in Chinese]

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2018 Apr 25;43(4):251-4

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To study the clinical efficacy and safety of bee-venom acupuncture therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


A total of 120 cases of RA patients were randomized into bee-sting acupuncture group (treatment) and western medicine group (control) in accordance with the random number table. The patients of the control group were treated by oral administration of Methotrexate (10 mg, once a week) and Celecoxlb (0.2 g, once a day), and those of the treatment group treated by 5 to 15 bee stings of Ashi-points or acupoints according to different conditions and corporeity, and with the bee-sting retained for about 5 min every time, once every other day. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The therapeutic effect was assessed by examining symptoms and signs of the affected joints as morning stiffness duration, swollen/tender joint counts (indexes), handgrip strength, 15 m-walking time, visual analogue scale (VAS), Disease Activity Score including a 28-joint count (DAS 28), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACCPA); and for assessing the safety of bee-venom acupuncture, the patients' responses of fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, regional red and swollen, itching, blood and urine tests for routine were examined.


Findings of DAS 28 responses displayed that of the two 60 cases in the control and bee-venom acupuncture groups, 15 and 18 experienced marked improvement, 33 and 32 were effective, 12 and 10 ineffective, with the effective rates being 80% and 83. 33%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the effective rate (P > 0.05). After the treatment, both groups have witnessed a marked decrease in the levels of morning stiffness duration, arthralgia index, swollen joint count index, joint tenderness index, 15 m walking time, VAS, RF, ESR, CRP and ACCPA, and an obvious increase of handgrip strength relevant to their own levels of pre-treatment in each group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the abovementioned indexes (P > 0.05). The routine blood test, routine urine test, routine stool test, electrocardiogram result, the function of liver and kidney and other security index were within the normal range, without any significant adverse effects found after bee-stinging treatment.


Bee-venom acupuncture therapy for RA patients is safe and effective, worthy of popularization and application in clinical practice.

Monday, June 11, 2018

Propolis Component Could Help Treat Age-Related Pathologies

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) possesses pro-hypoxia and anti-stress activities: bioinformatics and experimental evidences

Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018 Jun 4

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Honeybee propolis and its bioactive component, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), are known for a variety of therapeutic potentials. By recruiting a cell-based reporter assay for screening of hypoxia-modulating natural drugs, we identified CAPE as a pro-hypoxia factor.

In silico studies were used to probe the capacity of CAPE to interact with potential hypoxia-responsive proteins. CAPE could not dock into hypoxia inducing factor (HIF-1), the master regulator of hypoxia response pathway. On the other hand, it was predicted to bind to factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1). The active site residue (Asp201) of FIH-1α was involved in hydrogen bond formation with CAPE and its analogue, caffeic acid methyl ester (CAME), especially in the presence of Fe and 2-oxoglutaric acid (OGA). We provide experimental evidence that the low doses of CAPE, that did not cause cytotoxicity or anti-migratory effect, activated HIF-1α and inhibited stress-induced protein aggregation, a common cause of age-related pathologies.

Furthermore, by structural homology search, we explored and found candidate compounds that possess stronger FIH-1 binding capacity.

These compounds could be promising candidates for modulating therapeutic potential of CAPE, and its recruitment in treatment of protein aggregation-based disorders.

Sunday, June 10, 2018

Traditional Iranian Medicine with Honey, Queen Anne's Lace Helps Treat Female Sexual Dysfunction

Effects of a food product (based on Daucus carota) and education based on traditional Persian medicine on female sexual dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial

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Electron Physician. 2018 Apr 25;10(4):6577-6587


Globally, female sexual dysfunction is a serious concern based on negative family and social consequences, high side effects of medications and lack of effective treatment. Thus, the evaluation of treatment approach for this problem is an important priority for healthcare systems. Sexual life and its related disorders are considered the main aspects of a healthy lifestyle in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).


The present study aimed to determine and compare the effects of food products containing Daucus carota, TPM-based training program, and a combination of these two interventions on the improvement of female sexual dysfunction.


This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 96 women with sexual dysfunction based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®), aged 18-35 years who referred to the Gynecology Clinic of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (n=32) and received the intervention over an eight-week period. The first group was provided with TPM-based sexual health training, the second group received 30 g of a traditional food product (wild carrot halva: mixed Daucus carota and several herbs with honey) on a daily basis, and the third group received a combination of this traditional food product plus education. Data analysis was performed using Chi square test, repeated measures ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, post hoc Bonferroni, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank test in SPSS version 11.5.


According to the results of this study, there was a significant difference in terms of sexual desire (p = 0.002), lubrication (p = 0.002), orgasm (p = 0.004) and pain (p < 0.001) after eight weeks of the intervention among the three groups.


The use of two interventions of TPM including a food product containing Daucus carota and this product with TPM-based education improved desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain in females with sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, TPM-based education alone, led to the improvement of all domains of sexual dysfunction, except for pain in the females with sexual dysfunction.

Saturday, June 09, 2018

Malaysian Stingless Bee Honey Shows Probiotic Properties

Identification of Lactobacillus spp. and Fructobacillus spp. isolated from fresh Heterotrigona itama honey and their antagonistic activities against clinical pathogenic bacteria

Identificación de Lactobacillus spp. y Fructobacillus spp. aislados de la miel fresca de Heterotrigona itama y sus actividades antagónicas contra las bacterias patógenas clínicas

Journal of Apicultural Research 
Volume 57, 2018 - Issue 3

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Using an anaerobic and culture enrichment method, four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz. Sy-1, Sy-2, Sy-3 and Sy-4 were isolated from fresh stingless bee Heterotrigona itama (Family: Apidae, Tribe: Meliponini, Genus: Trigona) honey collected from four geographical localities of Malaysia. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses of conserved region by 16S rRNA gene profiling identified strain Sy-1 being closely related to the genus Lactobacillus (>91%) but exhibited low level strains kinship to other known species within the genus. It is probable that strain Sy-1 is a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Conversely, strains Sy-2, Sy-3 and Sy-4 were phylogenetically located in the Fructobacillus fructosus subcluster with sequence similarities of 98, 96 and 95%, respectively. Fructobacillus fructosus was the dominant LAB following its isolation in three out of the four honey samples despite their different geographical origins. API 50 CHL test revealed the strains could proficiently utilize a wide range of carbohydrates, with fructose and glucose being the preferred substrates. All LAB strains possess excellent antagonistic activity against five different clinically pathogenic bacteria, as observed from the zones of inhibition. This study demonstrates the H. itama honey as a reservoir for novel LAB with probiotic properties, envisaging its potential therapeutic role in food.

Utilizando un método anaeróbico y de enriquecimiento por cultivo, se aislaron cuatro cepas de bacterias lácticas (LAB) Sy-1, Sy-2, Sy-3 y Sy-4 de la miel fresca de abeja sin aguijón Heterotrigona itama (Family: Apidae, Tribe: Meliponini, Genus: Trigona) recolectada en cuatro localidades geográficas de Malasia. Los análisis filogenéticos y comparativos de la región conservada del gen del ARNr 16S identificaron que la cepa Sy-1 estaba estrechamente relacionada con el género Lactobacillus (> 91%) pero contenía cepas diferentes respecto otras especies conocidas dentro del género. Es probable que la cepa Sy-1 sea una especie novedosa del género Lactobacillus. Por el contrario, las cepas Sy-2, Sy-3 y Sy-4 se ubicaron filogenéticamente en el subgrupo Fructobacillus fructosus con similitudes en su secuencia de 98,96 y 95%, respectivamente. Fructobacillus fructosus fue el LAB dominante tras su aislamiento en tres de las cuatro muestras de miel a pesar de sus diferentes orígenes geográficos. La prueba API 50 CHL reveló que las cepas podían utilizar de manera competente una amplia gama de carbohidratos, siendo la fructosa y la glucosa los sustratos preferidos. Todas las cepas de LAB poseen una excelente actividad antagónica frente a cinco bacterias clínicamente patógenas diferentes, observadas desde las zonas de inhibición. Este estudio demuestra que la miel de H. itama es un reservorio para el nuevo LAB con propiedades probióticas, previendo su potencial papel terapéutico en la alimentación.

Friday, June 08, 2018

Tea Made with Brazilian Bees Helps Treat Diabetes

Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea

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PLoS One. 2018 Jun 5;13(6):e0197071

Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes.

Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.

The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes.

Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes.

For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT) were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes.

During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes.

In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose overload, normoglycemic mice treated with AmT had reduced hyperglycemia at all times evaluated up to 180 min. AmT also reduced hyperglycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes of diabetic mice to similar levels as those in metformin-treated mice and normoglycemic controls.

In summary, Apis mellifera bee tea showed antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity, which provides support for the therapeutic application of Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous knowledge.

Thursday, June 07, 2018

Propolis Component May Help Treat Cervical Cancer Induced by HPV

Artepillin C induces selective oxidative stress and inhibits migration and invasion in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer cell lines

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018 Jun 3

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Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is the main bioactive component of Brazilian green propolis, and possesses, among other things, anticancer properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of artepillin C in cervical cancer.

To explore a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we have evaluated the effects of artepillin C on cellular viability in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16- and 18-positive) and C33A (HPV-negative) cells compared to a spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that artepillin C had a selective effect on cellular viability and could induce apoptosis possibly by intrinsic pathway, likely a result of oxidative stress, in all cancer-derived cell lines but not in HaCaT. Additionally, artepillin C was able to inhibit the migration and invasion of cancer cells.

Thus, artepillin C appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV types.

Wednesday, June 06, 2018

Honey Helps Reduce Incidence of Diarrhea in Critically Ill Tube-Fed Patients

Effect of Honey on Diarrhea and Fecal Microbiotain in Critically Ill Tube-Fed Patients: A Single Center Randomized Controlled Study

Anesth Pain Med. 2018 Feb 21;8(1):e62889

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In patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Enteral Nutrition (EN) is the first choice for feeding support, however, it is often complicated by gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea. There are no studies that have specifically evaluated effect of a prebiotic, which prevents diarrhea during enteral nutrition.


This study aimed at evaluating the effect of honey in enteral diet during occurrence of diarrhea and fecal microbiotain in critically ill patients.

Materials and Methods:

In this double-blind, randomized controlled single-center study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive a high protein kitchen enteral diet and the study group had honey as 10% of its carbohydrate intake. Quantitative analyses of bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species of fecal samples were assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on days 0 and 7.


Patients in the honey group showed an insignificant increase in the frequency of bifidobacterium DNA by study day 7 in comparison with the control group. In the honey group, there was a considerable reduction in diarrhea (P = 0.09). A significant difference was found in length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (P = 0.001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (P = 0.04) in favor of the honey group.


Enteral nutrition with honey might reduce the length of stay at the ICU and development of organ failure in critically ill patients. It seems that honey helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea.

Tuesday, June 05, 2018

Propolis Helps Prevent Tooth Decay

Efficacy of red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm build-up and dental enamel demineralization

Arch Oral Biol. 2018 May 23;93:56-65

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The efficacy of a red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract (RP) in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm colonization was evaluated. The effect of RP on dental demineralization was also investigated.


Chemical composition was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentration (MIC and MBC, respectively) were investigated against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The cytotoxic potential of 3% RP in oral fibroblasts was observed after 1 and 3 min. Bovine dental enamel blocks (N = 24) were used for S. mutans biofilm formation (48 h), simulating 'feast or famine' episodes. Blocks/biofilms were exposed 2×/day, for 3 days, to a cariogenic challenge with sucrose 10% (5 min) and treated (1 min) with: 0.85% saline solution (negative control), 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX, positive control for biofilm colonization), 0.05% Sodium Fluoride (NaF, positive control to avoid demineralization) and 3% RP. Biofilms were assessed for viability (CFU/mL), and to observe the concentration of soluble and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides (SEPS and IEPS). Dental demineralization was assessed by the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and through polarized light microscopy (PLM).

The RP presented 4.0 pH and ºBrix = 4.8. The p-coumaric acid (17.2 μg/mL) and luteolin (15.23 μg/mL) were the largest contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. MIC and MBC of RP were 293 μg/mL and 1172 μg/mL, respectively. The 3% RP showed 43% of viably cells after 1 min. Lower number (p < 0.05) of viable bacteria (CFU/mL) was observed after CHX (1.8 × 105) followed by RP (1.8 × 107) treatments. The lowest concentration (μg/CFU) of SEPS (12.6) and IEPS (25.9) was observed in CHX (p < 0.05) followed by RP (17.1 and 54.3), and both differed from the negative control (34.4 and 63.9) (p < 0.05). Considering the %SHL, all groups differed statistically (p < 0.05) from the negative control (46.6%); but NaF (13.9%), CHX (20.1%) and RP (20.7%) did not differ among them (p > 0.05). After all treatments, suggestive areas of caries lesions were observed by PLM, which were lower for CHX and NaF.


The 3% RP reduced S. mutans colonization, decreased concentration of extracellular polysaccharides and reduced dental enamel demineralization.

Monday, June 04, 2018

Royal Jelly Helps Relieve Menopausal Symptoms of Anxiety, Backache, Low Back Pain in Postmenopausal Women

Royal Jelly Supplementation Improves Menopausal Symptoms Such as Backache, Low Back Pain, and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Japanese Women

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 Apr 29;2018:4868412


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) at a dose of 800 mg/day on menopausal symptoms in healthy Japanese postmenopausal women with placebo-controlled design.

Material and Methods:

A total of 42 healthy Japanese postmenopausal women have been recruited for this study. The subjects were randomized to oral treatment with either 800 mg of protease-digested lyophilized powder of RJ (enzyme-treated RJ) or placebo (800 mg of dextrin) daily for 12 weeks. The level of menopausal symptoms has been evaluated every 4 weeks, using menopausal symptoms questionnaire of Japanese women. Independent t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance of the treatment effects between the two groups.

Results and Conclusion:

All of the 42 women have completed the trial. There were significant differences related to the anxiety score (P = 0.046) and backache and low back pain score (P = 0.040) between 800 mg/day enzyme-treated RJ and placebo-treated groups after 12 weeks of administration, and no significant differences were found between the two groups in 4 weeks after intervention. No side effects were observed in either group.

This study demonstrates that enzyme-treated RJ supplementation with doses of 800 mg/day is effective in relieving menopausal symptoms such as anxiety, backache, and low back pain in Japanese postmenopausal women.

Sunday, June 03, 2018

Medicinal Potential of Propolis, Bee Pollen, and Royal Jelly in Treating Neurodegenerative Disorders, Cancer, Diabetes, Atherosclerosis

Antioxidant Potential of Propolis, Bee Pollen, and Royal Jelly: Possible Medical Application

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 May 2;2018:7074209

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Honeybees products comprise of numerous substances, including propolis, bee pollen, and royal jelly, which have long been known for their medicinal and health-promoting properties. Their wide biological effects have been known and used since antiquity.

Bee products are considered to be a potential source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, or terpenoids. Nowadays, the still growing concern in natural substances capable of counteracting the effects of oxidative stress underlying the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, as well as negative effects of different harmful factors and drugs, is being observed.

Having regarded the importance of acquiring drugs from natural sources, this review is aimed at updating the current state of knowledge of antioxidant capacity of selected bee products, namely, propolis, bee pollen, and royal jelly, and of their potential antioxidant-related therapeutic applications.

Moreover, the particular attention has been attributed to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying antioxidant properties of bee products.

The influence of bee species, plant origin, geographic location, and seasonality as well as type of extraction solutions on the composition of bee products extracts were also discussed.

Friday, June 01, 2018

Propolis, Black Seed Oil Help Control Gray Mold

Effects of fludioxonil, propolis and black seed oil application on the postharvest quality of "Wonderful" pomegranate

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PLoS One. 2018 May 31;13(5):e0198411

Pomegranate fruit consumption has increased rapidly throughout the world, mainly because of its medical and nutritive attributes. Thus, considerable commercial and scientific interest exists in prolonging its postharvest life with non-chemical applications as much as possible to meet the year-round demand for this fruit. The present work aimed to study the effects of black seed oil (0.1% and 0.5%), propolis (0.01% and 0.1%) and fludioxonil (0.06%), with and without modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), on the postharvest quality of pomegranate cv. Wonderful.

Treated fruits were stored at 6.5±1 °C and 90-95% relative humidity for 150 days. The results indicated that both black seed oil and propolis treatments significantly influenced the maintenance of fruit weight and quality. At 150 days after storage, the fruit weight loss of the samples treated with MAP + 0.5% black seed oil, MAP + 0.1% propolis and MAP alone were found to be 5.5%, 6.3%, and 9.1%, respectively, whereas the weight loss of the untreated control fruits was 19.8%.

GreApplication of either 0.5% black seed oil or 0.1% propolis, especially when combined with MAP, was also effective in controlling gray mold development and slowing the occurrence of chilling injury.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Bee Venom May Help Treat Fatty Liver

The therapeutic effects of bee venom on some metabolic and antioxidant parameters associated with HFD-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats

Exp Ther Med. 2018 Jun;15(6):5091-5099

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The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of bee venom (BV) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) in rats at different levels.

Histological manifestations, hepatic lipid content, liver function tests, glucose homeostasis, lipid abnormalities, adipocytokines, lipid peroxidation, disturbed glutathione and antioxidant enzymes systems and dysregulation of Nrf2 transcription factor were assessed. In the present study, the NAFL rats were subcutaneously treated with BV with different doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg). The results indicated that BV treatment completely normalized the lipid profile values of NAFL rats. Fasting blood sugar, insulin level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance significantly decreased.

BV treated rats showed a significantly lower level of all liver enzymes and bilirubin. Moreover, BV treatment significantly increased the levels of active nuclear erythroid factor 2 like 2, glutathione (GSH) (total and reduced), GSH/glutathione disulphide ratio and activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase (total and Se-dependent). The level of tumor necrosis factor-α was reduced. Treatment showed correction of adiponectin level, and significant downregulation of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol. At the histological level, BV improved the architecture of liver cells showing normal sinusoids.

It may be concluded that BV may represent an interesting therapeutic alternative for the treatment of NAFL disease.

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Propolis Component May Help Treat Nose and Throat Cancer

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Induces N-myc Downstream Regulated Gene 1 to Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Invasion of Human Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells

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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 May 8;19(5). pii: E1397

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component extracted from propolis, is widely studied due to its anti-cancer effect. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is distinct from other head and neck carcinomas and has a high risk of distant metastases. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is demonstrated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancers. Our result showed that CAPE treatment could repress NPC cell growth, through induction of S phase cell cycle arrest, and invasion.

CAPE treatment stimulated NDRG1 expression in NPC cells. NDRG1 knockdown increased NPC cell proliferation and invasion and rendered NPC cells less responsive to CAPE growth-inhibiting effect, indicating CAPE repressed NPC cell growth partly through NDRG1indcution. CAPE treatment increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pre-treatments by inhibitors of ERK (PD0325901), JNK (SP600125), or p38 (SB201290), respectively, all could partly inhibit the CAPE effect on NDRG1 induction in NPC cells. Further, STAT3 activity was also repressed by CAPE in NPC cells.

In summary, CAPE attenuates NPC cell proliferation and invasion by upregulating NDRG1 expression via MAPK pathway and by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT3. Considering the poor prognosis of NPC patients with metastasis, CAPE could be a promising agent against NPC.

Monday, May 28, 2018

Honey-Based Gel May Help Treat Skin, Ear Infections in Dogs

In vitro efficacy of a honey‐based gel against canine clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis

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Veterinary Dermatology
Volume 29, Issue 3, June 2018, Pages 180-e65


Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis are important agents in canine pyoderma and otitis.


Determine the in vitro efficacy of a honey‐based gel (HBO) against meticillin‐susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP), meticillin‐resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and M. pachydermatis, by minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and time‐kill assay (TKA). Efficacy of the product's honey component (HO) also was evaluated.


Sixty S. pseudintermedius and 10 M. pachydermatis canine isolates were selected. All isolates were tested against serial dilutions of an HBO containing 40% HO (40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% w/v) and HO alone (undiluted, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5% w/v). Microbroth assay followed by subculture was used to determine MBC and MFC. The same protocol was applied after product exposure to catalase. A well‐diffusion assay for S. pseudintermedius was used to generate inhibition zones. A TKA for 10 isolates of S. pseudintermedius and 10 isolates of M. pachydermatis was performed.


MBC was 20% w/v (5–20% w/v) for HBO and HO. HBO had lower MBC values when compared to HO (P = 0.003). No statistical difference was observed between MSSP/MRSP isolates (HBO P = 0.757, HO P = 0.743). Only HO was affected by catalase (P = 0.015). MFC for HBO was 10% w/v (5–10% w/v) and 40% w/v for HO (20–≥40% w/v). All isolates were killed after 4 h of exposure.

Conclusions and clinical importance

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis are susceptible to the HBO and these results can be used for future clinical trials.

Sunday, May 27, 2018

Bee Venom May Help Treat Stomach Cancer

Effect of dimerized melittin on gastric cancer cells and antibacterial activity

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Amino Acids. 2018 May 16

Melittin is the peptide toxin found in bee venom and is effective against cancer cells. To enhance its activity, a branched dimeric form of melittin was designed.

The monomeric form of the peptide was more cytotoxic against gastric cancer cells at low concentrations (1-5 μM) than the dimer form, while the cytotoxic effect was comparable at higher concentrations (10 μM). Confocal microscopy showed that both the monomer and dimer forms of melittin with fluorescent label at the C terminus penetrated the cytoplasm and localized at the cell nucleus and disrupted the cell membrane.

The results indicated that both peptides localized in the nucleus and no significant difference in penetration was observed between monomer and dimer of melittin. Although the C and N termini are important for melittin activity, using C terminus for dimerization of the peptide resulted in similar activity for the monomer and dimer against bacteria and gastric cancer cells.

Saturday, May 26, 2018

Propolis Helps Treat Inflammation of the Eye

Propolis modulates NOS2/arginase-1 pathway in tropomyosin-induced experimental autoimmune uveitis


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In this study, we evaluated the preventive and curative effects of ethanolic extract of Propolis (EEP) during α-Tropomyosin-induced uveitis in an experimental model using Wistar rats, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and arginase-1.

In this context, rats received daily injection of EEP (100 mg/kg) for 5 days prior to immunization or for 9 days commencing 5 days post immunization with α-Tropomyosin extract, then were sacrificed at day 14. Histological examination, NOS2, arginase-1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were evaluated in the retinas. Plasmatic production of nitric oxide (NO), urea, IL-4, and TNF-α was assessed.

We have found that treatment with EEP substantially reduced the retinal histological damages induced by α-Tropomyosin. In the same context, a significant decrease of NO and TNF-α levels was noticed. Interestingly, EEP down-modulated NOS2 and NF-κB expression in retina. Also, an increase in urea and IL-4 levels was concomitant to an up-modulation of arginase-1 expression.

Hence, it appears that EEP attenuated retinal damages through the induction of Th2 response and the inhibition of NF-κB/NOS2 pathway.

Friday, May 25, 2018

Brazilian Stingless Bee Propolis Disturbs Bacterial Cell Membrane

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees

Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018;51(6):e7118

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In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula.

Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods.

HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria.

The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus.

Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.

Thursday, May 24, 2018

Honey Can Boost Testosterone, Decrease Side Effects of Chemotherapy on Reproductive Systems and Prevent Sterility (Cancer, Iran, Testicular)

Protective effects of Persian honey, Apis Mellifera Meda Skorikov on side effects of chemotherapy and ischemia/reperfusion induced testicular injury

J Complement Integr Med. 2018 May 23

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The aim of the present study was to survey the protective effect of pretreatment with Persian honey on amelioration of side effects of chemotherapy and ischemia/reperfusion induced testicular injury.

Materials and methods 

Forty adult's male wistar rats were divided into four groups of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), honey + ischemia-reperfusion (HIR), Busulfan (B) and Busulfan intraperitoneally+ honey (BH). The seminiferous tubules were rated for their modified spermatogenesis index (SI) by Johnsons score. Detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at the early stages of apoptosis was performed using the in-situ cell death detection kit. Total serum concentration of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone was measured using ELISA. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.


Honey improved SI in the HIR and BH groups and serum levels of FSH and LH in the BH and HIR groups (p < 0.001). Also, serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher in BH and HIR groups. But, apoptotic cells in IR and B groups significantly increased (p < 0.001), while in HIR and BH groups, the number of apoptotic cells decreased and the positive cells of TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labelling) staining were detected in spermatocytes and spermatid.


Pretreatment with honey protect testis against chemotherapy and testicular IR injury, increase FSH and LH and testosterone and decrease the cellular damage and apoptosis. Honey can decrease the side effects of chemotherapy on reproductive system and prevent sterility.

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Thyme Honey Helps Treat Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis, Improve Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

The effect of the use of thyme honey in minimizing radiation - induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial.

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Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2018 Jun;34:89-97


Radiation-induced oral mucositis is one of the main side effects during and after the treatment of head and neck cancer patients. The study was designed to provide evidence on the effectiveness of thyme honey on oral mucositis management.


This was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 72 head and neck cancer patients who were divided either to the intervention group (thyme honey rinses) or to the control group (saline rinses). Oral mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOC criteria), and assessments were performed weekly starting at the 4th week of the radiotherapy for seven weeks and repeated once 6 months later. Additionally, the Oral Mucositis Weekly Questionnaire (OMWQ) was given at 4th week of radiotherapy, 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy and 6 months later. The Identifier for this study is NCT01465308. This paper reports on the findings regarding thyme honey's effectiveness on oral mucositis.


Generalized estimating equations revealed that patients in the intervention group were graded lower in the objective assessment of oral mucositis (p < 0,001), maintained their body weight (p < 0,001) and showed an improvement in their global health (p = 0.001) compared to the control group. Quality of life of the patients in the same group was also statistically significantly higher than that of the patients of the control group (p < 0,001).


The study provided evidence on the positive effect of thyme honey on the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients.

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

7th Apimedica & 6th Apiquality International Symposium Sibiu, Romania, 11 - 15 October 2018 (Bee Venom, Bee Pollen, Beeswax, Honey, Propolis, Royal Jelly)

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The meeting, organised by the Romanian Apitherapy Society (Apimondia member), in collaboration with Apimondia (the International Federation of Beekeepers’ Associations), will address the most relevant issues pertaining to apitherapy and the qualitative aspects of the production/use of bee products and is open to researchers, medical doctors, pharmacists, biochemists, biologists, therapists, students as well as to beekeepers.

The symposium will include: oral presentations, a poster session, keynote speakers, specific sessions (active compounds, properties, pharmacology and clinical applications of hive products; clinical aspects in human and veterinary medicine; best practices; residues in hive products; alkaloids in honey and pollen; standards and frauds) and practical training (practical demonstration and clinical evidence of apitherapy; on-field standard tools; innovative systems for beehives and hive products traceability).

The programme of the symposium will be as follows:

October 10, in the evening: Welcome Cocktail
October 11 (all day) + October 12 (until noon): Apiquality Symposium
October 12 evening: Social Dinner (optional)
October 12 (afternoon)-October 14: Apimedica Symposium
October 14 (afternoon): Technical Tour 1 (optional)
October 15: Workshops (optional)
October 16: Technical Tour 2 (optional)

For more details contact Dr Stefan Stangaciu at:

Monday, May 21, 2018

Bee Venom May Help Prevent Viral Diseases

Nasal delivery of chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated bee (Apis mellifera) venom promotes antibody production and viral clearance during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection by modulating T cell related responses

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Jun;200:40-51

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In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels. In the PRRSV challenge experiment, the CH/AL-BV group showed a significant decrease of viral burden in the sera and tissues (lung and bronchial lymph node) and mild interstitial pneumonia signs on both lung gross examination and microscopic evaluation with high levels of PRRSV-specific IgG and viral neutralizing antibody. CH/AL-BV also effectively induced not only Th1-related immune responses including increase in portion of CD4+ T lymphocyte, cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12), and transcriptional factors (STAT4 and T-bet), but also stimulated IFN-γ-secreting cell families such as CD4+ T lymphocytes and Th/memory cells. Interestingly, the CH/AL-BV group showed decrease in PRRSV-specific immune-suppressive actions, including the T regulatory cell population and its related cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) and transcriptional factors (STAT5 and Foxp3).

Therefore, nasal-delivered CH/AL-BV may effectively induce non-specific immune stimulating actions, particularly those related to Th1 responses and viral clearance activities against PRRSV infection. Based on these results, CH/AL-BV could be a promising strategy for overcoming the disadvantages of classical PRRSV vaccination and can be applied as a preventive agent against PRRSV and other viral diseases, particularly those with immune-suppressive characteristics.

Sunday, May 20, 2018

Phenolic Compounds and Flavonoids in Brazilian Geopropolis of Stingless Bees

Characterisation of phenolic compounds by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona subnitida (jandaíra)

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Phytochem Anal. 2018 May 17


Melipona subnitida Ducke (jandaíra) is a stingless bee native to north-eastern Brazil, which produces geopropolis, a mixture of beeswax, plant resins, pollens and earth that is used for sealing beehives.


To extend the knowledge on phenolic compounds in fractions obtained by C18-solid phase extraction (SPE) of nine geopropolis samples from Melipona subnitida collected at different times.


Chromatographic profiles of nine samples of geopropolis from jandaíra were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) and combined with the use of data-independent acquisition (MSE) for the profiling and structural characterisation of the phenolic compounds. The isolated compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and carbon (1 H- and 13 C-NMR).


The present study with geopropolis of jandaíra resulted in the characterisation of 51 phenolics by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS: four galloyl glucosides, one ellagic acid, 11 acyl-hexosides, 23 acyl-galloyl-hexosides and 12 flavonoids. The structures of two compounds (1,6-di-O-(E)-coumaroyl-2-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 1-O-cinnamoyl-6-O-(E)-coumaroyl-2-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside) were established by 1 H and the attached proton test (APT) experiments as well as high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) analysis.


The geopropolis of jandaíra showed phenolic compounds galloyl hexosides, ellagic acid, acyl-(cinnamoyl/coumaroyl)-hexosides, acyl-(cinnamoyl/coumaroyl)-galloyl-hexosides and flavonoids (aglycones and acylated-O-glycosides).

Saturday, May 19, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat Bone Tumors in Dogs (Cancer, Pets)

Positive effects of antitumor drugs in combination with propolis on canine osteosarcoma cells (spOS-2) and mesenchymal stem cells

Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 May 15;104:268-274

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The combination of lower concentrations of antitumor drugs (carboplatin - CARB, doxorubicin - DOX, and methotrexate - MET) with propolis was investigated against canine osteosarcoma (spOS-2) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro. The mechanism of action in the combinations was analyzed.

spOS-2 cells were incubated up to 72 h with propolis (50 μg/ml) alone or in combination with CARB (10-400 μmol/l), DOX (0.5-2 μmol/l) or MET (50-200 μmol/l). Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, apoptosis/necrosis by flow cytometry, and MSC was incubated with the optimum combination. Propolis alone exerted no cytotoxic action against spOS-2 cells, whereas CARB (400, 200 and 100 μmol/l) exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects comparing to DOX and MET.

The combination of propolis with the lowest concentrations of CARB led to better results comparing to CARB alone, which was not observed using DOX and MET. Apoptosis was involved in the action of propolis + CARB in spOS-2 cells. MSC were not affected by CARB/propolis, indicating that the cytotoxic action of the combination was specific to tumor cells but not to normal ones. Propolis improved the action of CARB against spOS-2 cells using lower concentrations of this drug, without affecting MSC.

These findings are relevant and indicate a possible application of propolis in OSA treatment.

Friday, May 18, 2018

Propolis Helps Treat Inflammation of the Eye

Propolis modulates NOS2/arginase-1 pathway in tropomyosin-induced experimental autoimmune uveitis

Inflammopharmacology. 2018 May 11

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In this study, we evaluated the preventive and curative effects of ethanolic extract of Propolis (EEP) during α-Tropomyosin-induced uveitis in an experimental model using Wistar rats, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and arginase-1.

In this context, rats received daily injection of EEP (100 mg/kg) for 5 days prior to immunization or for 9 days commencing 5 days post immunization with α-Tropomyosin extract, then were sacrificed at day 14. Histological examination, NOS2, arginase-1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were evaluated in the retinas. Plasmatic production of nitric oxide (NO), urea, IL-4, and TNF-α was assessed. We have found that treatment with EEP substantially reduced the retinal histological damages induced by α-Tropomyosin. In the same context, a significant decrease of NO and TNF-α levels was noticed. Interestingly, EEP down-modulated NOS2 and NF-κB expression in retina. Also, an increase in urea and IL-4 levels was concomitant to an up-modulation of arginase-1 expression.

Hence, it appears that EEP attenuated retinal damages through the induction of Th2 response and the inhibition of NF-κB/NOS2 pathway.

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Propolis Extracts Used to Ameliorate Immunogenicity of Pasteurella Bacterin (Fowl Cholera, Poultry, Atrophic Rhinitis, Pigs, Bovine Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Cows)

The Enhancement of the Pasteurella's Bacterin by Propolis Extracts

Rep Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Apr;6(2):208-218

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Pasteurella multocida continues to pose a danger to prone farm and wild animals all over the world. Chemotherapeutic treatments are progressively losing their effectiveness, last for long time, and cost a lot of money, as well as being toxic to human consumers. Therefore, clearing the way for immunization as a big-wheel alternative against the economic grain. Yet, the vaccines available in the market do not confer the necessary protection against the pathogen. The integration of the well adjuvanted killed vaccine with the attenuated vaccines proved to offer an effective protection to the host animals. However, the bare use of the killed bacterin to provide protection from the possible harm of the live attenuated vaccine was doubtful.


In the present study, propolis extracts were used to ameliorate the immunogenicity of the Pasteurella bacterin. The cellular and humoral activities were assessed for the different bacterin formulations.


Propolis extracts adjuvants proved to broaden and extend the IgG potency, as well as to induce a unique mucosal protection against the bacterium. Simultaneously it offered an anti-inflammatory effect that increased the tolerability to the bacterin. While the cellular activity was relatively reduced with propolis extracts.


These results confirm the effectiveness of the formulation of the bacterin with propolis to offer a potent homologous primary protection to the animals against the long-life use of the attenuated Pasteurella vaccines.

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Propolis May Help Prevent Heart Attacks

Propolis ethanolic extracts reduce adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation determined on whole blood

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Nutr J. 2018 May 14;17(1):52


Propolis is a well-known bee product containing more than 2000 identified compounds. It has many beneficial effects on human health that include antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and hepatoprotective justifying its use as a dietary supplement. Platelet aggregation plays crucial role in thrombus formation that can cause stroke or heart attacks. As cardiovascular diseases, including those caused by thrombus formation, are related to 50% of deaths of Western population, the objective of this study was to determine antiaggregatory activity of propolis on platelet aggregation on the whole blood samples.


Twenty one propolis samples from Southeast Europe were characterized by spectrophotometric methods to determine content of the total flavonoids and phenolic acids. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was used to identify and quantify individual polyphenols. Platelet aggregation was tested by impedance aggregometry on the whole blood samples of ten healthy volunteers.


The mean content of total polyphenols was 136.14 mg/g and ranged from 59.23 to 277.39 mg/g. Content of total flavonoids ranged between 6.83 and 55.44 mg/g with the mean value of 19.28 mg/g. Percentage of total phenolic acids was in the range 8.79 to 45.67% (mean 26.63%). Minimal antiaggregatory concentration, representing the lowest concentration of propolis extract sample that can cause statistically significant reduction of aggregation, ranged from 5 μM to 10.4 mM. Samples of propolis with lower content of luteolin and higher content of pinocembrin-7-methyleter showed better antiplatelet activity i.e. lower values of minimal antiaggregatory concentration.


This is the first study that shows antiaggregatory potential of propolis ethanolic extracts on the whole blood samples in the low micromolar concentrations suggesting that propolis supplementation may influence platelet aggregation and consequently thrombus formation. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Manuka Honey Helps Fight Allergies and Hay Fever, Expert Claims

The Independent (UK): Try a spoonful of manuka honey when you get the sniffles this summer

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For those who suffer from hay fever, enjoying all that summer has to offer is far easier said than done.

As beautiful as the weather can be, attempting to make the most of it can seem fruitless when you have to simultaneously endure a runny nose, itchy eyes and a persistent cough.

While it’s important to consult your doctor so that they can recommend the ideal medication to help you cope with your hay fever, an expert claims that regularly consuming manuka honey could also help soothe your symptoms...

Monday, May 14, 2018

Some Greek Honeys Have Higher Antibacterial Activity Than Manuka Honey

Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of different types of honey derived from Mount Olympus in Greece

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Int J Mol Med. 2018 May 4

The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of 21 types of honey derived from Mount Olympus (Mt. Olympus), a region with great plant biodiversity. The antibacterial activity was examined against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) by the agar well diffusion assay and the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

The antioxidant activity was assessed by using the 2,2‑diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'‑azino‑bis(3‑ethylbenzothiazoline‑6‑sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) free radical scavenging assays. These activities were compared to Manuka honey which is used as an alternative medicine. The results revealed that all tested honey types exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The MIC of the tested honey types against S. aureus ranged from 3.125 to 12.5% (v/v), while MIC of Manuka honey was determined to be 6.25% (v/v).

The MIC values of the tested honey types against P. aeruginosa ranged from 6.25 to 12.5% (v/v) and the MIC of Manuka honey was determined at 12.5% (v/v). Moreover, the results suggested that the presence of hydrogen peroxide and proteinaceous compounds in the honey types accounted, at least in part, for the antibacterial activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic content (TPC) of the honey types seemed to contribute to the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, some of the tested honey types exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS•+ radicals, which was greater than that of Manuka honey.

The results indicated that not only the quantity, but also the quality of the polyphenols were responsible for the antioxidant activity. Moreover, four honey types exhibiting great antioxidant activity were converted to powder using a freeze drying method. The results indicated that following conversion to powder all honey types, apart from one, retained their antioxidant activity, although their TPC was reduced.

On the whole, and at least to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first that extensively examined the bioactivities of different types of honey derived from Mt. Olympus...

In conclusion, the present study was the first to examine antioxidant and antibacterial activities of honey types derived from Mt. Olympus which exhibits a high plant biodiversity. The tested honey types exerted antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Importantly, some of the honey types had a higher antibacterial activity than Manuka honey, which is used as an alternative medicine. It seemed that hydrogen peroxide and proteinaceous compounds found in the honey types were responsible, at least in part, for the observed antibacterial activity...

Sunday, May 13, 2018

Brazilian Propolis May Help Treat Amyloid Disease (Brazil, Amyloidosis)

Inhibitory effect of propolis on the development of AA amyloidosis

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules

J Toxicol Pathol. 2018 Apr;31(2):89-93

In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear.

In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis. Although serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were strongly correlated with the immunoreactive area of AA deposits in the control group, the correlation was weaker in the propolis-treated groups. In addition, there were no changes in SAA levels between the control group and the propolis-treated groups.

The results indicate that propolis, an antioxidant, may induce inhibitory effects against AA amyloidosis.

Saturday, May 12, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat Apoptosis-Resistant Breast Cancer

The cytotoxic effects of propolis on breast cancer cells involve PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species generation

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules

Inflammopharmacology. 2018 May 10

Propolis has been extensively used to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. Different types of Cuban propolis (red, brown and yellow) have been documented. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Cuban red propolis (CP) on MDA MB-231 cell line, since breast cancer is considered one of the most common causes of mortality among women.

Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of CP against MDA MB-231 cells were determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylth-iazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptosis/necrosis, involvement of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of genes were investigated. CP extract exhibited antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on MDA MB-231 cells, what may be probably related to PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. A decreased expression of apoptosis-related genes (TP53, CASP3, BAX and P21) was seen, whereas the expressions of BCL-2, BCL-XL, NOXA and PUMA were unaffected. CP extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction and LDH release, what indicated cell necrosis associated with reactive oxygen species production and decreased cell migration.

Our findings provide a basis for future investigation of chemopreventive and/or therapeutic studies against apoptosis-resistant breast cancer, in animals and humans.