Monday, March 25, 2019

Medical Grade Honey Reduces Infections, Ruptures in Horse Wounds


Intra-lesional application of medical grade honey improves healing of surgically treated lacerations in horses

Equine Vet J. 2019 Mar 21

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BACKGROUND:

Infection and dehiscence of simple lacerations is common in horses, and consistently effective methods of prevention are yet to be found. Honey has been shown to promote wound healing when applied topically; however, intra-lesional application prior to wound closure has not been reported.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine whether intra-lesional application of medical grade honey (MGH) would reduce the incidence of infection and dehiscence following wound closure.

STUDY DESIGN:

Prospective, open-label randomised block design clinical study.

METHODS:

Lacerations, treated by field practitioners, were divided into treatment and control groups using block randomisation. Horses in the treatment group received a single intra-lesional treatment with l-mesitran gel (MGH). Data were collected at the time of wound closure and at suture removal.

RESULTS:

Data from 127 horses were included, 69 MGH-treated and 58 control cases. No adverse effects of the MGH were recorded. MGH-treated horses were more likely to completely heal [P = 0.006, odds ratio (OR) 3.40 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 - 8.20], to have no signs of infection (P = 0.007, OR 3.64, CI 1.42 - 9.26) and for the veterinarians to report some degree of satisfaction (P = 0.04, OR 2.72, CI 1.05 - 7.09) compared to control cases. Numbers needed to treat for complete healing was 5.1 (CI 2.8 - 40).

MAIN LIMITATIONS:

Clinical studies have inherent flaws compared to wound healing models, because of variability between wounds. There were more horses with limb injuries in the control group, although not statistically significant, this may have biased the results. Clinical satisfaction and signs of infection were subjective evaluations and evaluators were not blinded to the treatment group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Intra-lesional application of MGH to lacerations prior to wound closure may be beneficial in preventing infection and dehiscence. Larger, blinded studies focusing on wounds at a specific location with more objective assessment should be pursued.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Propolis Helps Treat Urinary Tract Infections

Xyloglucan + Gelose Combination versus Placebo as Adjuvant Therapy to First-Line Antimicrobials for Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults

Urol Int. 2019 Mar 19:1-8

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BACKGROUND:

A medical device containing xyloglucan-gelose-hibiscus-propolis (referred to hereafter as xyloglucan + gelose) acts as a mucosal barrier protector and urinary acidifier. The safety and efficacy of this device were investigated as adjuvant therapy to first-line antimicrobials for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in adults.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

In this multicentre, randomised, parallel group, double-blind, phase IV study, xyloglucan + gelose (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) were administered orally in combination with an antimicrobial agent (e.g., ciprofloxacin) for 5 days, then alone for 5 days, then beginning on Day 30 of the study for 15 days per month for 2 months.

RESULTS:

Frequency of adverse events (AEs) was 5 and 45% in the xyloglucan + gelose and placebo groups respectively. All AEs were unrelated to study products. Xyloglucan + gelose reduced uroculture positivity (defined as a bacterial count ≥103 CFU/mL) from 100% of patients at baseline to 0% at Day 11, with recurrence in 3 patients (15%) by Day 76. Corresponding results with placebo were 100% uroculture positive patients at baseline reduced to 45% at Day 11, with recurrence in 14 patients (70%) by Day 76. Xyloglucan + gelose significantly reduced the frequency of urinary incontinence and urgency of micturition compared with placebo (both p < 0.05), with symptom resolution in all patients by Day 90.

CONCLUSIONS:

The xyloglucan + gelose medical device was safe, well tolerated, and it reduced bacteriological and symptomatic parameters in adults with uncomplicated UTI.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Propolis Recommended for Tooth Pain


Comparison of two desensitizing agents for decreasing dentin hypersensitivity following periodontal surgeries: a randomized clinical trial.

Quintessence Int. 2019;50(4):320-329

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OBJECTIVE:

Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a common problem with multifactorial etiology. It is characterized by a short, sharp pain due to exposed dentin usually at the cervical margin. This randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two desensitizing agents for reduction of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) following periodontal surgeries.

METHOD AND MATERIALS:

This study evaluated 96 patients who had one or two teeth with DH (120 teeth). The teeth were randomly allocated into four groups for treatment with 10% ethanolic extract of propolis (group 1), 30% ethanolic extract of propolis (group 2), Single Bond Universal dentin bonding agent (group 3), and distilled water as placebo (group 4). The degree of DH was determined according to the patients' response to tactile and air blast stimuli using a visual analog scale (VAS). The level of pain was also recorded before treatment and at 1, 7, 14, 21, 60 and 90 days after the treatment.

RESULTS:

All interventions (groups 1 to 3) were significantly effective in decreasing DH, and 10% and 30% ethanolic extracts of propolis were equally effective. The dentin bonding agent was completely effective at all time points. All three interventions (groups 1 to 3) effectively decreased DH at 60 and 90 days.

CONCLUSIONS:

This clinical trial showed all interventions were more effective than the placebo in decreasing DH. The tested propolis extracts were equally effective irrespective of their concentration. Application of Single Bond Universal had a fast relieving effect on DH. Propolis extracts and dentin bonding agent were equally effective in relieving DH in the long term.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

DH following periodontal surgery causes patient discomfort and hinders everyday activities. Propolis is a natural desensitizing agent with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, healing effects, and cariostatic activity. It also stimulates reparative dentin formation. Flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives are the main biologically active components in the composition of propolis. According to the results of this study, application of propolis is recommended for patients with mild or moderate pain. Dentin bonding agent could be a better choice when immediate effect is needed.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Chilean Bee Pollen Shows Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity


Honeybee Pollen Load: Phenolic Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity

J Nat Prod. 2019 Mar 6

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Honeybee pollen loads result from the agglutination of pollen grains and salivary secretions of bees. The potential use of honeybee pollen as a food supplement greatly depends on its chemical composition, which varies depending on the botanical and geographical origin of the pollen grains.

This study aimed to characterize the botanical origin, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile. The introduced species Brassica rapa and Eschscholzia californica predominated in the bee pollen analyzed. The honeybee pollen extracts showed antioxidant and antibacterial properties, specifically against the pathogenic microorganism Streptococcus pyogenes. Quercetin and myricetin were found in all samples in large concentrations.

The separation of pollen loads from a multifloral sample demonstrated that E. californica pollen loads are responsible for antibacterial activity. This sample also showed a high concentration of quercetin (304.8 mg/100 g of bee pollen). Based on the present results, honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile has been found to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, it is proposed to use quercetin as a quality indicator for honeybee pollen from this region of Chile.

These results should help establish better quality control criteria for Chilean honeybee pollen and its potential use as a functional ingredient.

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Honeydew Honey Has Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Potential


An overview of physicochemical characteristics and health-promoting properties of honeydew honey

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Food Res Int. 2019 May;119:44-66

Honeydew honey has differentiated chemical and physicochemical characteristics besides potential functional properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this sense, the interest and consumption of this honey as a functional product by the food industry and consumers have increased. Honeydew honeys usually present dark color, a lower content of monosaccharides and higher values of pH, acidity, electric conductivity, proteins, minerals, phenolic compounds, and oligosaccharides compared to blossom honeys, which contribute to its outstanding biological activities. Consequently, contaminations and adulterations of this honey can occur and compromise the quality, safety and authenticity of honeydew honey.

Thus, detailed knowledge of the composition and properties of honeydew honeys is of great importance, especially considering that honeydew honeys are still few studied and therefore underestimated. Therefore, in this review, the physicochemical characteristics, chemical and bioactive composition, functional and health-promoting properties of honeydew honey as well as contamination, adulteration and authenticity of this honey are summarized.

Monday, March 18, 2019

Propolis Effective as Food Preservative


Development of propolis nanoemulsion with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity for use as a potential natural preservative

Food Chem. 2019 Jul 30;287:61-67

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Propolis has demonstrated potential use as food preservative but it presents strong and unpleasant flavor that alters the sensory characteristics foods. A nanoemulsion was proposed to carry the Brazilian propolis extracts for use as natural food preservative. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical constituents of the extracts were investigated. The latter were made by sequential extraction using different solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol).

Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar diffusion and microdilution methods and antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assays. Extracts showed antibacterial and antioxidant activity, highlighting the ethanolic which contained artepillin-C, kaempferide, drupanin and p-coumaric acid as main compounds by LC-MS analysis. The nanoemulsion developed by phase inversion method was characterized and stable under thermal-stress and centrifugation conditions. Biological properties evaluated were effectively maintained by the formulation.

It was concluded that the nanoemulsion can be used as a food preservative, preventing degradation and masking the propolis off-flavor.

Sunday, March 17, 2019

Libyan Propolis Shows Potent Anti-Trypanosomal Activity (Sleeping Sickness, African Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, Tape Worm)


Isolation of a Novel Flavanonol and an Alkylresorcinol with Highly Potent Anti-Trypanosomal Activity from Libyan propolis

Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1041

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Twelve propolis samples from different parts of Libya were investigated for their phytochemical constituents. Ethanol extracts of the samples and some purified compounds were tested against Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and against two helminth species, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans, showing various degrees of activity. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the propolis samples, including a novel compound Taxifolin-3-acetyl-4’-methyl ether (4), a flavanonol derivative.

The crude extracts showed moderate activity against T. spiralis and C. elegans, while the purified compounds had low activity against P. falciparum. Anti-trypanosomal activity (EC50 = 0.7 µg/mL) was exhibited by a fraction containing a cardol identified as bilobol (10) and this fraction had no effect on Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF), even at 2.0 mg/mL, thus demonstrating excellent selectivity. A metabolomics study was used to explore the mechanism of action of the fraction and it revealed significant disturbances in trypanosomal phospholipid metabolism, especially the formation of choline phospholipids.

We conclude that a potent and highly selective new trypanocide may be present in the fraction.

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Brown Propolis Shows Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities


Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Standardized Polyphenol Mixture Extracted from Brown Propolis

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 12;20(5)

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Several lines of evidence demonstrate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of propolis, mostly ascribed to its polyphenol content. However, little is known regarding the bioavailability of propolis in acute and prolonged settings of oral administration.

In this study, we first determined the content of the main polyphenols in a brown propolis extract obtained using a patented extraction method (Multi Dinamic Extraction-M.E.D.) by RP-HPLC-UV-PDA-MSn analysis, followed by the bioavailability of galangin and chrysin, the most abundant polyphenols in the mixture (7.8% and 7.5% respectively), following acute (single bolus of 500 mg/kg containing about 3.65 mg of the polyphenol mixture) and prolonged (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body for 30 days) oral administration in 30 male 8 weeks old C57BL/6 wild-type mice. In the acute setting, blood was taken at 30 s and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min following the oral bolus. In the prolonged setting, blood samples were obtained after 10, 20 or 30 days of administration.

At the end of treatment, expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxyde dismutase, SOD-1; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GSS) was evaluated in liver tissue. Following both acute and prolonged administration, neither galangin nor chrysin were detectable in the plasma of mice, whereas the glucuronide metabolite of galangine was detectable 5 min after acute administration.

At the end of the prolonged treatment SOD-1 was found to have increased significantly, unlike CAT and GSS. Overall, these data suggest that oral administration of whole brown propolis extract is followed by rapid absorption and metabolization of galangin followed by adaptations of the antioxidant first line defense system.

Thursday, March 14, 2019

Iranian Propolis May Help Treat Diabetes

Administration of Iranian Propolis attenuates oxidative stress and blood glucose in type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial

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Caspian J Intern Med. 2019 Winter;10(1):48-54

Background:

Hyperglycemia in diabetic people resulted in oxidative conditions. Propolis is the third most important component of bee products which has various functional properties such as anti-oxidant due to its components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the propolis effect on fructosamine level, the catalase activity, and the level of oxidized LDL changes in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods:

In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial study, 62 type 2 diabetic patients, attending Endocrine clinic in Velayat Hospital (Qazvin, Iran) in 2017, were randomly assigned to one of intervention and placebo (n=31) groups. Participants in intervention group took propolis capsule (500 mg) 3 times a day and those in placebo group took placebo capsules for 8-week. Fructosamine level, catalase activity and the level of oxidized-LDL were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.

Results:

At the end of the study, significant differences were seen within groups and in-between groups. In Propolis group compared to the placebo, fructosamine (p < 0.05), and the level of oxidized LDL (p < 0.05) decreased, and catalase activity (p < 0.05) improved. However, there were no significant changes in the placebo group at the end of trial.

Conclusion:

Eight weeks intake of propolis as a supplement in type II diabetic patients could improve anti-oxidant defense and decline production of hyperglycemia induced products such as fructosamine.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Korean Mint Honey Shows Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activity


Antimicrobial Activity of Agastache Honey and Characterization of Its Bioactive Compounds in Comparison With Important Commercial Honeys

Front Microbiol. 2019 Feb 25;10:263

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There is an urgent need for new effective antimicrobial agents since acquired resistance of bacteria to currently available agents is increasing.

The antimicrobial activity of Mono-floral Agastache honey produced from Australian grown Agastache rugosa was compared with the activity of commercially available honeys derived from Leptospermum species and with Jarrah honey for activity against clinical and non-clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Agastache honey was in the range of 6-25% (w/v) for all species examined. The MICs for Leptospermum honeys were generally similar to those of Agastache honey, but MICs were higher for Super manuka and Jarrah honeys and lower for Tea tree honey.

Staphylococci were more susceptible to all honeys than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of honey with catalase increased the bacterial growth at MIC of Tea tree honey (35%), Super Manuka (15%), Jarrah honeys (12%), and Agastache honey (10%), indicating variable contributions of hydrogen peroxide to antimicrobial activity. Manuka and Jelly bush honeys retained their antimicrobial activity in the presence of catalase, indicating the presence of other antimicrobial compounds in the honey. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and used to identify possible antimicrobial phenolic compounds in Agastache honey and flowers, and five commercial honeys. The chemical markers characteristic of Agastache honey and honeys of Leptospermum origin were phenyllactic acid and methyl syringate.

Overall, the bioactive compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in Agastache honey suggested a possible use for topical application and in wound care.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Propolis Dressing Boosts Wound Healing


In vitro and in vivo performance of a propolis-coated polyurethane wound dressing with high porosity and antibacterial efficacy

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2019 Mar 6;178:177-184

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Wound dressings with antimicrobial and wound healing accelerating properties are emerging as valuable options to prevent wound infection and improve the wound healing process.

In this study, high porous polyurethane (PU) foams were successfully prepared using salt leaching/solvent casting method and were coated with propolis as a well-known anti-bacterial agent. The wound dressings were subjected to detail analyzes using electron microscopy, reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties, contact angle measurement, ratio swelling, porosity measurement, and in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

The prepared wound dressings had high porosity (more than 80%) with homogeneous pore structure and sufficient interconnectivity. The increase of propolis concentration (10%-30%) caused tensile strength decrease (5.26 ± 0.40-2.99 ± 0.11 MPa), elongation at break increase (372 ± 12-434 ± 22%), contact angle decrease (114.52 ± 2.31° to 35.53 ± 1.65°), water absorption decreased (243 ± 15-207 ± 14%) and enhancement of the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

The propolis coated wound dressing exhibited significant enhancement of in vitro cellular compatibility and in vivo wound healing which had direct relative with coated propolis concentration.

Therefore, propolis-coated polyurethane wound dressing can be an appropriate candidate for more pre-clinical investigations.

Monday, March 11, 2019

Chilean Bee Pollen Shows Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities


Honeybee Pollen Load: Phenolic Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity

J Nat Prod. 2019 Mar 6

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Honeybee pollen loads result from the agglutination of pollen grains and salivary secretions of bees. The potential use of honeybee pollen as a food supplement greatly depends on its chemical composition, which varies depending on the botanical and geographical origin of the pollen grains.

This study aimed to characterize the botanical origin, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile. The introduced species Brassica rapa and Eschscholzia californica predominated in the bee pollen analyzed. The honeybee pollen extracts showed antioxidant and antibacterial properties, specifically against the pathogenic microorganism Streptococcus pyogenes.

Quercetin and myricetin were found in all samples in large concentrations. The separation of pollen loads from a multifloral sample demonstrated that E. californica pollen loads are responsible for antibacterial activity. This sample also showed a high concentration of quercetin (304.8 mg/100 g of bee pollen).

Based on the present results, honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile has been found to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, it is proposed to use quercetin as a quality indicator for honeybee pollen from this region of Chile. These results should help establish better quality control criteria for Chilean honeybee pollen and its potential use as a functional ingredient.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Bee Pollen May Help Treat Cognitive Impairment (Memory, Dementia)


The Ameliorating Effects of Bee Pollen on Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice

Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(3):379-388

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Bee pollen consists of floral pollen mixed with bee secretions and nectar. It has been considered as a functional food and has different kinds of biologically active ingredients, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, phytosterols and minerals. However, its function in cognition has yet been investigated.

In the present study, we investigated the ameliorating effect of bee pollen against scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment through the passive avoidance test, the Y-maze test and the Morris water maze test. In addition, Western blotting was employed to verify the effects of bee pollen on memory-related signaling molecules in the hippocampus. Bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) obviously reversed scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test, ameliorated spontaneous alternation versus the scopolamine-treated group in the Y-maze test and prolonged swimming time in the target zone in the Morris water maze test. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the hippocampi, were increased in response to the treatment with bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o.).

These results indicated that bee pollen ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic blockade through the enhancing conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF by tPA, probably, through the ERK-CREB pathway or Akt-GSK-3β signaling pathway and would be a useful agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

Saturday, March 09, 2019

Malaysian Propolis Boosts Antibiotics, May Help Treat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria


Cationic chitosan-propolis nanoparticles alter the zeta potential of S. epidermidis, inhibit biofilm formation by modulating gene expression and exhibit synergism with antibiotics

PLoS ONE

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Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents.

Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis.

The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60–70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA. At 100 μg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%.

The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP.

In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Friday, March 08, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

Gum arabic and red propolis protecteting colorectal preneoplastic lesions in a rat model of azoxymethane1

Acta Cir Bras. 2019 Feb 28;34(2):e201900207

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PURPOSE:

To evaluate red propolis, gum arabic and L-lysine activity on colorectal preneoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM).

METHODS:

The study featured 4 control groups (I-IV) and 4 experimental groups (V-VIII), totaling 48 rats. Once a week for 2 weeks, animals on control groups received saline, while animals in experimental groups received azoxymethane (15 mg/kg i.p.). The follow up along 16 weeks included daily oral gavage to administer water (I and V), L-lysine (150 mg/kg)(II and VI), própolis (100mg/5ml/kg)(III and VII), or gum arabic (5ml/kg)(IV and VIII). Was performed surgery on the animals in the end of this time in order to collect blood for biological assays (TBARS, GSH), followed by their sacrifice to tissue extract.

RESULTS:

Oxidative stress (TBARS) and the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in distal colon were lower using própolis (p < 0.01 for both parameters). Gum arabic reduced preneoplastic lesions (ACF ≤ 4 crypts) on distal colon and on the entire colon (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Red propolis reduced AOM-induced oxidative stress (TBARS) and total number of ACF in the distal colon. L-lysine neither protected against nor enhanced AOM-induced ACF. Gum arabic reduced the number of ACF.

Thursday, March 07, 2019

Bee Venom Boosts Effect of Anti-Cancer Drug


Antimutagenic and Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of Cisplatin and Honey Bee Venom on 4T1 Invasive Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line.

Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Jan 29;2019:7581318

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Introduction:

Honey bee venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as the inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat most of the cancers. Our aim in the present study was to determine antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma, exclusively and in combination with cisplatin.

Methods:

In this study, 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), at 37°C in humidified CO2 incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by the MTT assay. Also, HBV was screened‏ for its antimutagenic activity via the Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software version 19 and one-way ANOVA method considering p < 0.05 level of significance.

Results:

The results showed that 6 mg/ml of HBV, 20 μg/ml of cisplatin, and 6 mg/ml HBV with 10 μg/ml cisplatin could induce approximately 50% of 4T1 cell death. The concentration 7 mg/ml of HBV with of 62.76% inhibitory rate showed the highest antimutagenic activity in comparison with other treatment groups.

Conclusions:

The MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin could cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin also promoted by HBV. Ames test outcomes indicated that HBV could act as a significant mutagenic agent. The antimutagenic activity of HBV was increased considerably in the presence of S9 mix. Therefore, our findings have revealed that HBV can enhance the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin drug and its cancer-preventing effects.

Wednesday, March 06, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Prostate Cancer


Ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis decreases androgen receptor transcriptional activity in cultured LNCaP cells

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Mar 1. pii: S0960-0760(19)30084-6

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Antiandrogens have a peculiar place in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer by blocking the androgen receptor (AR). Unfortunately, aggressive tumors could rapidly develop into a castration resistant state. It is therefore essential to look for new molecules that are more effective, affecting not only the androgen signaling and with minimum undesirable effects.

Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botanical origin. Based on an ethnobotany screening, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) from Algeria on LNCaP cells. Results pointed out that EEP reduces the survival of LNCaP cells with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml, induces the apoptosis and blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.

Interestingly, EEP decreased the accumulation of AR suggesting some anti-androgen activity. Indeed, secreted amount of the androgen target protein PSA was decreased when LNCaP cells were incubated with EEP, starting after 4 h of treatment. This anti-androgen activity was also shown on the androgen target genes Fkbp5 and Sgk1.

Finally, the capacity of EEP to block AR functioning was demonstrated in transient transfections with human AR and the reporter gene ARE-tk-Luc. Propolis antagonizes the induction of the luciferase activity induced by the natural androgen DHT (10-8M) or the synthetic AR agonist R1881 (10-7M). Altogether, these results highlight the potential pharmacological effects of EEP in future treatments of prostate cancer.

Tuesday, March 05, 2019

Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese/Korean Date, Jujube) Honey Helps Decrease Blood Alcohol

Anti-alcoholic effects of honeys from different floral origins and their correlation with honey chemical compositions

Food Chem. 2019 Jul 15;286:608-61

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The effects of honeys from different floral origins on alcohol metabolism were compared, and the correlation between their chemical compositions and antialcholic effects was analyzed.

The results demonstrated that the five types of investigated honeys from different floral origins had different effects on alcohol metabolism, and the blood alcohol removal rate by these honeys ranged from 18.01% to 49.17%. Ziziphus jujuba honey exhibited the best blood alcohol removal effect, and meanwhile significantly enhanced the activity of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Chemical composition analysis also showed that honeys from different floral origins were considerably different in the contents of sugars, minerals, ascorbic acid and phenolics.

Ziziphus jujuba honey had the highest fructose/glucose ratio, ascorbic acid and phenolics contents, and higher contents of minerals, especially K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. This chemical composition might contribute to its better anti-alcoholic effect.

Monday, March 04, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (E.COLI, MRSA)


Cationic chitosan-propolis nanoparticles alter the zeta potential of S. epidermidis, inhibit biofilm formation by modulating gene expression and exhibit synergism with antibiotics

PLoS One. 2019 Feb 28;14(2):e0213079

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Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents. Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties.

Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis. The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60-70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA.

At 100 μg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%. The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP.

In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Sunday, March 03, 2019

Honey Bee Venom May Help Treat Arthritis

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Properties of Honey Bee Venom on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model in Rats

Toxicon. 2019 Feb 27. pii: S0041-0101(19)30057-1

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The aim of this study was to assess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of honey bee venom (HBV) on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Thirty-five rats were equally divided into a negative control (NC), a positive control (PC) and low, moderate and high doses (2, 4 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) of HBV treatment groups. Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) was given to the rats to form arthritis.

The treatment groups were treated with HBV for 3 consecutive weeks. After the treatment, plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) DNA damage levels were measured. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, TOS, OSI, DNA damage levels and MPO activities were significantly higher and TAS levels were lower in the PC group than the NC. After low-doses of HBV treatment IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β1, TOS, OSI, MPO and MNL-DNA damage levels significantly decreased according to the PC, while IFN-γ and TAS levels increased.

The differences in moderate and high-dose HBV treatment groups were not as significant as low HBV doses. Low-doses of HBV has been shown to treat RA with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, by preventing DNA damage. However, these effects have not been observed as strong at higher doses of HBV.

In summary, HBV may be an effective option to ameliorate RA, but the optimization of the therapeutic dose has a crucial role.

Saturday, March 02, 2019

Bee Propolis is a Wonder Food for Pregnant Diabetic Women

REPORTS HEALTHCARE

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The researchers from Usmanu Danfodiyo University in Nigeria and Universiti Sains Malaysia have come up with a study stating that propolis is a superfood for pregnant, diabetic women. It is potent enough not only to improve pregnancy outcomes in diabetic women but also placental oxidative stress. The respective research was published in Journal BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Diabetes mellitus is expected to affect more than 642 million people in the world, by 2040. Characterized by elevated blood sugar, diabetes causes a wide range of complications when left untreated. These may include kidney damage, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease etc.

Pregnancy, for sure, isn’t an easy experience. Especially, for mothers who have been diagnosed with diseases such as diabetes. This is because diabetes during pregnancy affects the development of the baby.

Previous studies have shown that diabetic mothers are more likely to give birth to infants with congenital malformations. Maternal factors including age, obesity, duration of the disease, diet, and medications add to the situation. A higher placental oxidative stress has also been observed among such women. This can potentially be resolved consuming natural antioxidants.

Bees produce propolis from the tree sap, their own discharges, and beeswax. Propolis has long served as a traditional remedy for wounds and cancer. It has also been used to improve (in rats)...

Friday, March 01, 2019

Honey Bee Venom May Help Treat Brain Injuries


The Effect of Honey Bee Venom on the Expression of Aquaporin 1 in Epithelial Cells of Choroid Plexus in Lateral Ventricles of Rat

Volume 20, Issue 4 (1-2019) yafte 2019, 20(4): 97-106

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Background: Aquaporins are the trans-membrane water channels which transport water on both sides of the plasma membrane. Aquaporin1, express in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of choroid plexus and has got the important role in cerebrospinal fluid secretion. In hydrocephalus and brain injuries, Aquaporin1 overexpress in central nervous system. Honey Bee Venom (HBV) contains a wide range of biologically active components with anti-inflammatory and inhibitory effects on Na+/K+ ATPase pump and protein kinase-C function. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect of HBV on Aquaporin1 expression in epithelial cells of choroid plexus in lateral ventricles of rat brain in culture.

Materials and Methods: After harvesting the choroid plexus tissue and performing the enzymatic and mechanical digestion, cells were seeded in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% streptomycin penicillin. After one week, cells were treated for 24 hours with 0.5, 2 and 4 µg/ml of HBV. The effect of HBV on cells viability and Aquaporin1 expression evaluated with MTT assay and flow-cytometry method (respectively). All experiments were done three times and data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software and P < 0.05 was chosen as the level of significance.

Results: The results of the MTT The result showed that 5.7 µg/ml HBV can induce an approximately 50% choroid plexus epithelial cells death. Due to the results of the flow- cytometry Aquaporin1 decreased as dose dependent manner after 24 hours from treating.

Conclusion: Due to decreasing of the Aquaporin1 expression in HBV-treated cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells, HBV can be used in improving disease condition with increasing intracranial pressure.

Thursday, February 28, 2019

Honey, Propolis Component Protects Against Brain, Heart, Liver, Testis, Kidney Toxicity


The antidiabetic and anticholinergic effects of chrysin on cyclophosphamide-induced multiple organ toxicity in rats: Pharmacological evaluation of some metabolic enzyme activities

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Feb 22:e22313

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Chrysin (CH) or 5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid present in various plants, bee propolis, and honey. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is a chemotherapeutic drug, which is extensively used in the treatment of multiple human malignancies.

In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of CYP and CH on some metabolic enzymes including carbonic anhydrase, aldose reductase, paraoxonase-1, α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase enzyme activities in the brain, heart, testis, liver, and kidney tissues of rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were used. The animals were pretreated with CH (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days before administering a single dose of CYP (200 mg/kg b.w.) on the seventh day.

In all the tissues, the treatment of CH significantly regulated these enzyme activities in CYP-induced rats. These results showed that CH exhibited an ameliorative effect against CYP-induced brain, heart, liver, testis, and kidney toxicity.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Honey May Be Healthy Alternative Sweetener for Those with Diabetes

Antioxidants of honey in perspective of blood glycaemic control

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, February 2019, Volume 69, Issue 2

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Diabetes is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder that is characterized by an abnormal increase of blood glucose level over the range of 126 mg/dl in fasting condition.

Prolonged stay of glucose in blood leads to hyperglycaemia, which is an established index of diabetes development. Chronically, this high blood sugar predisposes to different types of complications. Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications by increasing protein glycation and gradual buildup of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) in body tissues.

...Antioxidant-rich diets have been proposed as attractive candidates for diabetes management. Recently, a study reported the binding mechanism of phytochemicals with two enzymes (-amylase and -glucosidase) to ameliorate their antidiabetic and antiglycation potentials. It is also intrigued that amylose-antioxidants complex formation may modulate starch digestion.

One of the natural products is palatable honey which is a juicy excretion of honeybees and is derived from nectar of plant flowers. In other words it is true to say that bioactive compounds/antioxidants in honey come from plant (floral) origins.However, in comparison with the other plant based natural products, antioxidants in honey are readily available to consume in delicious semi-liquid form due to sugar contents.

Thus, the consumption of floral/plant based antioxidants through honey suppress oxidative stress to prevent vital body organs from free radicals/ROS attacks. It also decreases starch digestibility in gastrointestinal tract, reducing blood glycaemic response.Therefore, due to high antioxidative potential honey seems to be a highly efficacious and effective supplement for many of the pathologies/ailments. But diabetic patients are reluctant to use this natural honeybee produce.

...In light of above described facts, prospective research is warranted to identify different floral origins from which honeys are derived/produced. Hopefully, in futuristic studies low glycaemic indexed honey(s) will be exploited as natural healthy alternative sweetener(s) to refined sugar and antioxidant suppressant by preventing harmful effects of ROS. Furthermore, vital honey(s) along with floral origin(s) can be exploited at commercial scale in the form of honeybee farms for diabetic patients.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Propolis Has Well Documented Germ-Fighting Properties and is Rich in Antioxidants

The Many, Many Wellness Benefits of Bee By-Products

Total Beauty

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"Propolis has well documented germ-fighting properties and is rich in antioxidants as well as hundreds of beneficial plant compounds – bees line every inch of their hives with this sticky stuff to keep things clean and germ-free; it's pretty much their built-in immune system," adds Stein. "They even keep what is essentially a propolis doormat by the hive entrance to ensure no one tracks in any nasties!" And, if they do, Dr. Noah Wilson-Rich, the founding partner and chief scientific officer at The Best Bees Company says that bees can self-medicate by adding more propolis inside their nest after exposure to a disease-causing fungus...


Monday, February 25, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Glaucoma


Oculohypotensive effects of various acetozolamide nanopreparations for topical treatment of animal model-induced glaucoma and their impact on optic nerve

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PLoS One. 2019 Feb 21;14(2):e0212588

Acetozolamide-ACZ, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor- is still the most effective systemic drug for glaucoma treatment. Due to its limited ocular bioavailability, topical formulations are not available yet.

This study introduces within the framework of nanotechnology three nanopreparations of acetozolamide for topical application, one of them is liposomal phospholipid vehicle and the other two preparations are propolis and Punica granatum (pomegranate).

The hypotensive effect of these different nanopreparations in lowering the increased intraocular pressure that was induced in experimental rabbits is monitored for 130 hrs. Structural characteristics of the optic nerve dissected from all involved groups were studied by Fourier transfrom infrared spectroscopy.

The obtained results indicate the impact of the topically applied acetozolamide nanopreparations in lowering the intraocular pressure to its normotensive control value. On the other hand, the optic nerve characteristics were found to be dependent on the way acetozolamide introduced.

Glaucoma affects structural components that contain OH group and increases β-turns of the protein secondary structure while, reducing the content of both α-helix and Turns. In the same context, liposomal-acetozolamide and propolis nanopreparations protecting the optic nerve protein secondary structure from these changes associated with glaucoma.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Propolis Component May Help Treat Gum (Periodontal) Disease


Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against oxidative stress and dampens inflammation via heme oxygenase 1

Int J Oral Sci. 2019 Feb 20;11(1):6

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Periodontal disease is associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation.

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), is a central active component of propolis, and the application of propolis improves periodontal status in diabetic patients.

Here, primary murine macrophages were exposed to CAPE. Target gene expression was assessed by whole-genome microarray, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of CAPE were examined by exposure of the cells to hydrogen peroxide, saliva and periodontal pathogens. The involvement of HO1 was investigated with the HO1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) and knockout mice for Nrf2, which is a transcription factor for detoxifying enzymes. CAPE increased HO1 and other heat shock proteins in murine macrophages. A p38 MAPK inhibitor and Nrf2 knockout attenuated CAPE-induced HO1 expression in macrophages.

 CAPE exerted strong antioxidative activity. Additionally, CAPE reduced the inflammatory response to saliva and periodontal pathogens. Blocking HO1 decreased the antioxidative activity and attenuated the anti-inflammatory activity of CAPE.

In conclusion, CAPE exerted its antioxidative effects through the Nrf2-mediated HO1 pathway and its anti-inflammatory effects through NF-κB inhibition. However, preclinical models evaluating the use of CAPE in periodontal inflammation are necessary in future studies.

Friday, February 22, 2019

Propolis in Combination with Boric Acid Protects Against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced (I/R) Acute Kidney Injury

Propolis and Its Combination with Boric Acid Protect Against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis in Rats

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Feb 19

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Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury which causes kidney dysfunction is one of the most studied diseases directly linked to oxidative stress.

In this regard, it is important to protect cells against damage by inducing antioxidant response.

Herein, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic roles and possible mechanisms of propolis and boric acid in kidney I/R injury based on relevant basic research and clinical studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 50 min of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion.

Animals were randomly divided into a control group (the abdominal wall was just opened and closed), an I/R injury group, the propolis intervention group (200 mg/kg, intragastric administration, 1 h before ischemia), boric acid intervention group (14 mg/kg, intragastric administration 1 h before ischemia), and the propolis + boric acid intervention group (intragastric administration 1 h before ischemia). Kidney function, the antioxidant defensive system, and renal damage were assessed. In addition, the oxidative stress and inflammatory status were estimated in renal tissue.

Furthermore, DNA damageand apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemistry. When compared with I/R group, propolis alone and especially propolis + boric acid groups significantly improved functional parameters. While the antioxidant response was increased, renal injury size and apoptosis were significantly decreased in both groups. Also, the MDA and TNF-α levels besides the 8-OHdG formation were downregulated.

According to these outcomes, it can be said that especially propolis together with boric acid ameliorates kidney injury caused by I/R through acting as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic agent. In conclusion, propolis alone and its combination with boric acid could be developed as therapeutic agents against serious renal I/R injuries.