Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Honey Improves Lipid Profile Such as; Total Cholesterol, TG and LDL and Increases HDL, But Consumption of Sugar Increases Total Cholesterol, TG and LDL and Decreases HDL

The effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on lipid profile in young healthy subjects (randomized clinical trial)

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Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Aug;26:8-12

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Several studies have demonstrated that honey consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease indicators. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on lipid profile among young healthy subjects.

METHODS:

Sixty healthy subjects, aged 18-30 years, were randomly recruited into this double blind randomized trial and assigned into two groups: honey (received 70 g honey per day) and sucrose (received 70 g sucrose per day) groups. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL were measured in the control and intervention groups at the beginning and end of study.

RESULTS:

In this trial, the baseline FBS, SBP and DBP were not different between honey and sucrose groups (P > 0.3). We found evidence indicating consumption of honey can decrease total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL in healthy young subjects, but intake of sucrose increase total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreased HDL. In all of these analyses, confounding variable including age, physical activity and some nutrient intake were adjusted.

CONCLUSIONS:

Honey consumption can improve the lipid profile such as; total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL, but consumption of sucrose increases total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreases HDL. Further clinical trial studies are required to confirm our findings.

Monday, June 18, 2018

Brazilian Propolis Boosts Wound Healing

Evaluation and Comparison of Wound Healing Properties of an Ointment (AlpaWash) Containing Brazilian Micronized Propolis and Peucedanum ostruthium Leaf Extract in Skin Ulcer in Rats

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Int J Pharm Compd. 2018 Mar-Apr;22(2):154-163

Several previous studies have demonstrated improved wound healing associated with natural-based formulations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a topical formulation containing both a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and a Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract for the treatment of wounds created by surgical punch in rats.

The study was conducted for 14 days and animals were treated as follows: gauze group (G), polyethylene glycol base ointment (Control), AlpaWash (an ointment containing a Brazilian micronized propolis extract and Peucedanum ostruthium leaf extract [Treatment]), and polysporin (one of the most commonly used topical antibiotic ointments, based on bacitracin zinc and polymyxin B sulfate [Reference Standard]).

In general, the results demonstrated that ointments, due to occlusiveness and the ability to maintain moisture under the damaged area, offered improvements when compared to lesions without any treatment. Additionally, the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, as well as antioxidants and antimicrobials, offered improved stimulation and could accelerate wound healing. The Control, Treatment, and Reference Standard groups were able to close the lesion, as measured by the wound healing rate determination and follow-up photographs. However, AlpaWash and Polysporin presented some additional benefits- anti-inflammatory activity, measured using myeloperoxidase and histological count, as well as fibroplasia and hydroxyproline production, suggesting that skin with a better quality could be formed following these two treatments.

Therefore, based on the current concern of antibiotic overuse in wound healing, the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and the decrease in newer antibiotics, AlpaWash is considered a prominent formulation to be employed in wound-healing applications.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Propolis Promotes Bone Healing


Propolis extract a new reinforcement material in improving bone healing: an in vivo study

Int J Surg. 2018 Jun 11. pii: S1743-9191(18)31498-5

BACKGROUND:

Propolis is known for its antioxidant, immune response modulating, and wound healing effects. In the present study in order to determine the bone healing capacity of the propolis extract, a critical sized, nonunion, radial bone defect model was repaired in rat, using chitosan and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds along with propolis extract.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Seventy-two radial bone defects in 36 healthy male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n= 12/group). The groups included autograft, defect or untreated group, chitosan, DBM, chitosan and propolis (chitosan-propolis), and DBM and propolis (DBM-propolis). The bone repairing capability was characterized using radiography at 28th, 42nd and 56th postoperative days. Gross morphologic, histopathologic, histomorphometric and biomechanical examinations were performed following euthanasia at the 56th post-operative day.

RESULTS:

The DBM-propolis group, showed better structural and biomechanical properties compared to the untreated, DBM, chitosan and chitosan-propolis groups. The defect site in the chitosan and untreated groups were mainly restored by fibrous connective tissue while the lesions in the autograft group were mostly filled by cartilage and a lesser amount of woven bone. The woven bone, and the hyaline cartilage were the main constituents of the newly formed tissues in the DBM-propolis group, at the 56th day after injury.

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study showed that percutaneous injection of diluted aqueous propolis extract in the bone defect (25 mg/defect) can improve bone formation in the critical radial bone defect in rat. Since there was no significant difference between the autograft and DBM-propolis group, probably this therapeutic strategy has high potential in augmentation of autologous bone grafting.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Honey Bee Larvae Powder May Help Prevent, Treat Cancer


Anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities of honey bee larvae powder by suppressing the expression of EZH2

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Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun 12;105:690-696

Honey bee larvae products have been widely used as traditional daily supplements and complementary medicine for health promotion. However, there is little scientific evidence about their bioactivities.

This study was designed to examine the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of honey bee larvae powder (HLP) and explore the underlying mechanism.

A subcutaneous transplantation model (murine breast cancer cell 4T1-LUC) and lung metastasis model (murine melanoma cell B16-F10) were established to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of HLP. Honey bee larvae powder extract (HLE) was obtained by 70% ethanol extraction, and its chemical composition was determined according to physiochemical methods. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was performed to test the cytotoxicity of HLE, and qRT-PCR assays were conducted to examine the mRNA levels of tumor marker EZH2 in HLE-treated tumor cells. \

In vivo xenograft tumor assays in BALB/c mice revealed dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and lung metastasis showing an inhibition rate of 37.5% and 70.4% at 6 g/kg HLP-administered group with no toxicity to the animals. In vitro studies indicated that HLE showed no cytotoxicity to cancer cells at doses up to 1000 μg/mL, however, it significantly decreased EZH2 mRNA levels in HLE (1000 μg/mL)-treated B10-F10 cells (28.49%) and 4T1-LUC cells (26.75%).

Further studies to elucidate the mechanisms involved and to isolate the active components of honey bee larva may provide more valuable information for its development and application in cancer treatment.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Antibacterial Activity of Honeydew Honey Equivalent to Medical-Grade Manuka and Kanuka Honey

Phytochemicals-mediated production of hydrogen peroxide is crucial for high antibacterial activity of honeydew honey

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Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 13;8(1):9061

Honeydew honey is increasingly valued due to its pronounced antibacterial potential; however, the underlying mechanism and compounds responsible for the strong antibacterial activity of honeydew honey are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth of 23 honeydew honey samples. Activity of bee-derived glucose oxidase (GOX) enzyme, the content of defensin-1 (Def-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and total polyphenol content were determined in the 23 honey samples.

Our results demonstrated that antibacterial activity of honeydew honey was equivalent to medical-grade manuka and kanuka honey and was abolished by catalase. Although H2O2 is an important factor in the inhibition of bacterial growth, polyphenolic compounds and their interaction with H2O2 are the key factors responsible for high antibacterial activity of honeydew honey. In addition, our results indicated that the antibacterial activity of honeydew honey is not dependent on GOX-mediated production of H2O2 or the presence of Def-1.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Honey Debrides Wounds, Kills Bacteria, Penetrates Biofilm, Lowers Wound pH, Reduces Chronic Inflammation, and Promotes Fibroblast Infiltration


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Honey-Based Templates in Wound Healing and Tissue Engineering

Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 46

Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities.

Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success.

This review details the current state of the field, including challenges which have yet to be overcome, and makes recommendations for the direction of future research in order to develop effective tissue regeneration therapies.


Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat Colitis

Propolis from Different Geographic Origins Suppress Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of DSS-Induced Colitis is Associated with Decreased Bacteroides spp. in the Gut

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Jun 11:e1800080

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SCOPE:

Dietary supplementation with polyphenol-rich propolis can protect against experimentally-induced colitis. We examined whether different polyphenol compositions of Chinese propolis (CP) and Brazilian propolis (BP) influences their ability to protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS analysis confirmed that polyphenol compositions of CP and BP were dissimilar. Rats were given CP or BP by gavage (300 mg/kg body weight) throughout the study, starting 1 week prior to DSS treatment for 1 week followed by 3 d without DSS. CP and BP significantly reduced the colitis disease activity index relative to controls not receiving propolis, prevented significant DSS-induced colonic tissue damage and increased resistance to DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress as shown by reduced malonaldehyde levels and increased T-AOC levels. CP and BP significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic apoptosis. Colonic inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were suppressed by CP and BP, whereas only BP induced expression of TGF-β. CP, not BP, increased the diversity and richness of gut microbiota populations. Both forms of propolis significantly reduced populations of Bacteroides spp.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite the dissimilar polyphenol compositions of CP and BP, their ability to protect against DSS-induced colitis is similar. Nevertheless, some different physiological impacts were observed.

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Bee Venom Acupuncture 'Safe and Effective Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Bee-venom Acupuncture. [Article in Chinese]

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2018 Apr 25;43(4):251-4

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OBJECTIVE:

To study the clinical efficacy and safety of bee-venom acupuncture therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS:

A total of 120 cases of RA patients were randomized into bee-sting acupuncture group (treatment) and western medicine group (control) in accordance with the random number table. The patients of the control group were treated by oral administration of Methotrexate (10 mg, once a week) and Celecoxlb (0.2 g, once a day), and those of the treatment group treated by 5 to 15 bee stings of Ashi-points or acupoints according to different conditions and corporeity, and with the bee-sting retained for about 5 min every time, once every other day. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The therapeutic effect was assessed by examining symptoms and signs of the affected joints as morning stiffness duration, swollen/tender joint counts (indexes), handgrip strength, 15 m-walking time, visual analogue scale (VAS), Disease Activity Score including a 28-joint count (DAS 28), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACCPA); and for assessing the safety of bee-venom acupuncture, the patients' responses of fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, regional red and swollen, itching, blood and urine tests for routine were examined.

RESULTS:

Findings of DAS 28 responses displayed that of the two 60 cases in the control and bee-venom acupuncture groups, 15 and 18 experienced marked improvement, 33 and 32 were effective, 12 and 10 ineffective, with the effective rates being 80% and 83. 33%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the effective rate (P > 0.05). After the treatment, both groups have witnessed a marked decrease in the levels of morning stiffness duration, arthralgia index, swollen joint count index, joint tenderness index, 15 m walking time, VAS, RF, ESR, CRP and ACCPA, and an obvious increase of handgrip strength relevant to their own levels of pre-treatment in each group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the abovementioned indexes (P > 0.05). The routine blood test, routine urine test, routine stool test, electrocardiogram result, the function of liver and kidney and other security index were within the normal range, without any significant adverse effects found after bee-stinging treatment.

CONCLUSION:

Bee-venom acupuncture therapy for RA patients is safe and effective, worthy of popularization and application in clinical practice.

Monday, June 11, 2018

Propolis Component Could Help Treat Age-Related Pathologies

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) possesses pro-hypoxia and anti-stress activities: bioinformatics and experimental evidences

Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018 Jun 4

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Honeybee propolis and its bioactive component, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), are known for a variety of therapeutic potentials. By recruiting a cell-based reporter assay for screening of hypoxia-modulating natural drugs, we identified CAPE as a pro-hypoxia factor.

In silico studies were used to probe the capacity of CAPE to interact with potential hypoxia-responsive proteins. CAPE could not dock into hypoxia inducing factor (HIF-1), the master regulator of hypoxia response pathway. On the other hand, it was predicted to bind to factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1). The active site residue (Asp201) of FIH-1α was involved in hydrogen bond formation with CAPE and its analogue, caffeic acid methyl ester (CAME), especially in the presence of Fe and 2-oxoglutaric acid (OGA). We provide experimental evidence that the low doses of CAPE, that did not cause cytotoxicity or anti-migratory effect, activated HIF-1α and inhibited stress-induced protein aggregation, a common cause of age-related pathologies.

Furthermore, by structural homology search, we explored and found candidate compounds that possess stronger FIH-1 binding capacity.

These compounds could be promising candidates for modulating therapeutic potential of CAPE, and its recruitment in treatment of protein aggregation-based disorders.

Sunday, June 10, 2018

Traditional Iranian Medicine with Honey, Queen Anne's Lace Helps Treat Female Sexual Dysfunction

Effects of a food product (based on Daucus carota) and education based on traditional Persian medicine on female sexual dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial

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Electron Physician. 2018 Apr 25;10(4):6577-6587

Background: 

Globally, female sexual dysfunction is a serious concern based on negative family and social consequences, high side effects of medications and lack of effective treatment. Thus, the evaluation of treatment approach for this problem is an important priority for healthcare systems. Sexual life and its related disorders are considered the main aspects of a healthy lifestyle in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

Objective: 

The present study aimed to determine and compare the effects of food products containing Daucus carota, TPM-based training program, and a combination of these two interventions on the improvement of female sexual dysfunction.

Methods: 

This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 96 women with sexual dysfunction based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®), aged 18-35 years who referred to the Gynecology Clinic of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (n=32) and received the intervention over an eight-week period. The first group was provided with TPM-based sexual health training, the second group received 30 g of a traditional food product (wild carrot halva: mixed Daucus carota and several herbs with honey) on a daily basis, and the third group received a combination of this traditional food product plus education. Data analysis was performed using Chi square test, repeated measures ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, post hoc Bonferroni, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank test in SPSS version 11.5.

Results: 

According to the results of this study, there was a significant difference in terms of sexual desire (p = 0.002), lubrication (p = 0.002), orgasm (p = 0.004) and pain (p < 0.001) after eight weeks of the intervention among the three groups.

Conclusion:

The use of two interventions of TPM including a food product containing Daucus carota and this product with TPM-based education improved desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain in females with sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, TPM-based education alone, led to the improvement of all domains of sexual dysfunction, except for pain in the females with sexual dysfunction.

Saturday, June 09, 2018

Malaysian Stingless Bee Honey Shows Probiotic Properties


Identification of Lactobacillus spp. and Fructobacillus spp. isolated from fresh Heterotrigona itama honey and their antagonistic activities against clinical pathogenic bacteria

Identificación de Lactobacillus spp. y Fructobacillus spp. aislados de la miel fresca de Heterotrigona itama y sus actividades antagónicas contra las bacterias patógenas clínicas

Journal of Apicultural Research 
Volume 57, 2018 - Issue 3

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Using an anaerobic and culture enrichment method, four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz. Sy-1, Sy-2, Sy-3 and Sy-4 were isolated from fresh stingless bee Heterotrigona itama (Family: Apidae, Tribe: Meliponini, Genus: Trigona) honey collected from four geographical localities of Malaysia. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses of conserved region by 16S rRNA gene profiling identified strain Sy-1 being closely related to the genus Lactobacillus (>91%) but exhibited low level strains kinship to other known species within the genus. It is probable that strain Sy-1 is a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Conversely, strains Sy-2, Sy-3 and Sy-4 were phylogenetically located in the Fructobacillus fructosus subcluster with sequence similarities of 98, 96 and 95%, respectively. Fructobacillus fructosus was the dominant LAB following its isolation in three out of the four honey samples despite their different geographical origins. API 50 CHL test revealed the strains could proficiently utilize a wide range of carbohydrates, with fructose and glucose being the preferred substrates. All LAB strains possess excellent antagonistic activity against five different clinically pathogenic bacteria, as observed from the zones of inhibition. This study demonstrates the H. itama honey as a reservoir for novel LAB with probiotic properties, envisaging its potential therapeutic role in food.

Utilizando un método anaeróbico y de enriquecimiento por cultivo, se aislaron cuatro cepas de bacterias lácticas (LAB) Sy-1, Sy-2, Sy-3 y Sy-4 de la miel fresca de abeja sin aguijón Heterotrigona itama (Family: Apidae, Tribe: Meliponini, Genus: Trigona) recolectada en cuatro localidades geográficas de Malasia. Los análisis filogenéticos y comparativos de la región conservada del gen del ARNr 16S identificaron que la cepa Sy-1 estaba estrechamente relacionada con el género Lactobacillus (> 91%) pero contenía cepas diferentes respecto otras especies conocidas dentro del género. Es probable que la cepa Sy-1 sea una especie novedosa del género Lactobacillus. Por el contrario, las cepas Sy-2, Sy-3 y Sy-4 se ubicaron filogenéticamente en el subgrupo Fructobacillus fructosus con similitudes en su secuencia de 98,96 y 95%, respectivamente. Fructobacillus fructosus fue el LAB dominante tras su aislamiento en tres de las cuatro muestras de miel a pesar de sus diferentes orígenes geográficos. La prueba API 50 CHL reveló que las cepas podían utilizar de manera competente una amplia gama de carbohidratos, siendo la fructosa y la glucosa los sustratos preferidos. Todas las cepas de LAB poseen una excelente actividad antagónica frente a cinco bacterias clínicamente patógenas diferentes, observadas desde las zonas de inhibición. Este estudio demuestra que la miel de H. itama es un reservorio para el nuevo LAB con propiedades probióticas, previendo su potencial papel terapéutico en la alimentación.

Friday, June 08, 2018

Tea Made with Brazilian Bees Helps Treat Diabetes


Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea

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PLoS One. 2018 Jun 5;13(6):e0197071

Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes.

Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.

The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes.

Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes.

For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT) were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes.

During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes.

In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose overload, normoglycemic mice treated with AmT had reduced hyperglycemia at all times evaluated up to 180 min. AmT also reduced hyperglycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes of diabetic mice to similar levels as those in metformin-treated mice and normoglycemic controls.

In summary, Apis mellifera bee tea showed antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity, which provides support for the therapeutic application of Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous knowledge.

Thursday, June 07, 2018

Propolis Component May Help Treat Cervical Cancer Induced by HPV

Artepillin C induces selective oxidative stress and inhibits migration and invasion in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer cell lines

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018 Jun 3

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Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is the main bioactive component of Brazilian green propolis, and possesses, among other things, anticancer properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of artepillin C in cervical cancer.

To explore a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we have evaluated the effects of artepillin C on cellular viability in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16- and 18-positive) and C33A (HPV-negative) cells compared to a spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that artepillin C had a selective effect on cellular viability and could induce apoptosis possibly by intrinsic pathway, likely a result of oxidative stress, in all cancer-derived cell lines but not in HaCaT. Additionally, artepillin C was able to inhibit the migration and invasion of cancer cells.

Thus, artepillin C appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV types.

Wednesday, June 06, 2018

Honey Helps Reduce Incidence of Diarrhea in Critically Ill Tube-Fed Patients

Effect of Honey on Diarrhea and Fecal Microbiotain in Critically Ill Tube-Fed Patients: A Single Center Randomized Controlled Study

Anesth Pain Med. 2018 Feb 21;8(1):e62889

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Background:

In patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Enteral Nutrition (EN) is the first choice for feeding support, however, it is often complicated by gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea. There are no studies that have specifically evaluated effect of a prebiotic, which prevents diarrhea during enteral nutrition.

Objective:

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of honey in enteral diet during occurrence of diarrhea and fecal microbiotain in critically ill patients.

Materials and Methods:

In this double-blind, randomized controlled single-center study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive a high protein kitchen enteral diet and the study group had honey as 10% of its carbohydrate intake. Quantitative analyses of bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species of fecal samples were assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on days 0 and 7.

Results:

Patients in the honey group showed an insignificant increase in the frequency of bifidobacterium DNA by study day 7 in comparison with the control group. In the honey group, there was a considerable reduction in diarrhea (P = 0.09). A significant difference was found in length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (P = 0.001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (P = 0.04) in favor of the honey group.

Conclusions:

Enteral nutrition with honey might reduce the length of stay at the ICU and development of organ failure in critically ill patients. It seems that honey helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea.

Tuesday, June 05, 2018

Propolis Helps Prevent Tooth Decay

Efficacy of red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm build-up and dental enamel demineralization

Arch Oral Biol. 2018 May 23;93:56-65

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OBJECTIVE:

The efficacy of a red propolis hydro-alcoholic extract (RP) in controlling Streptococcus mutans biofilm colonization was evaluated. The effect of RP on dental demineralization was also investigated.

METHODS:

Chemical composition was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentration (MIC and MBC, respectively) were investigated against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). The cytotoxic potential of 3% RP in oral fibroblasts was observed after 1 and 3 min. Bovine dental enamel blocks (N = 24) were used for S. mutans biofilm formation (48 h), simulating 'feast or famine' episodes. Blocks/biofilms were exposed 2×/day, for 3 days, to a cariogenic challenge with sucrose 10% (5 min) and treated (1 min) with: 0.85% saline solution (negative control), 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX, positive control for biofilm colonization), 0.05% Sodium Fluoride (NaF, positive control to avoid demineralization) and 3% RP. Biofilms were assessed for viability (CFU/mL), and to observe the concentration of soluble and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides (SEPS and IEPS). Dental demineralization was assessed by the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and through polarized light microscopy (PLM).
RESULTS:

The RP presented 4.0 pH and ºBrix = 4.8. The p-coumaric acid (17.2 μg/mL) and luteolin (15.23 μg/mL) were the largest contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. MIC and MBC of RP were 293 μg/mL and 1172 μg/mL, respectively. The 3% RP showed 43% of viably cells after 1 min. Lower number (p < 0.05) of viable bacteria (CFU/mL) was observed after CHX (1.8 × 105) followed by RP (1.8 × 107) treatments. The lowest concentration (μg/CFU) of SEPS (12.6) and IEPS (25.9) was observed in CHX (p < 0.05) followed by RP (17.1 and 54.3), and both differed from the negative control (34.4 and 63.9) (p < 0.05). Considering the %SHL, all groups differed statistically (p < 0.05) from the negative control (46.6%); but NaF (13.9%), CHX (20.1%) and RP (20.7%) did not differ among them (p > 0.05). After all treatments, suggestive areas of caries lesions were observed by PLM, which were lower for CHX and NaF.

CONCLUSION:

The 3% RP reduced S. mutans colonization, decreased concentration of extracellular polysaccharides and reduced dental enamel demineralization.