Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Everything You Need to Know About Health Benefits of Manuka Honey


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Why Manuka honey?

Manuka honey is the natural ointment for healing wounds of all kinds. It often addressed as a germ fighter in the age of antibiotics. This lesser used traditional remedy that also benefits in acne and sinus issues.

Manuka honey is produced in New Zealand by bees that pollinate the native manuka bush. When bees pollinate from scrub plant, their honey is more potent because of higher concentration of methylglyoxal (MGO).

What are the advantages of manuka honey?

Raw honey is associated with health benefits whereas manuka is specialised in antibacterial and bacterial resistant.

1. Accountable for treating both acute and chronic diseases.
2. Helps in healing scrapes
3. Promotes oral health
4. Soothes a soar throat
5. Prevention from gastric ulcers
6. Improves digestion system
7. Treats acne
8. Clearing infections
9. Boosting the immune system
10. Provides energy

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Bee Venom Helps Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis

Bee Venom and Hesperidin Effectively Mitigate Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Via Immunomodulation and Enhancement of Antioxidant Defense System

Arch Rheumatol. 2017 Nov 2;33(2):198-212

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This study aims to assess the antirheumatic activity of bee venom (BV) and/or hesperidin as natural products in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in male Wistar rats.

Material and methods:

Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in 30 male Wistar rats (weight 130 g to 150 g; age 10 to 12 weeks) by subcutaneous injection of CFA into the right hind paw of the rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six rats in each and administered the following regimens for 21 days: Normal group (given the equivalent volume of saline and carboxymethylcellulose), arthritic group (given the equivalent volume of saline and carboxymethylcellulose), arthritic group treated with BV (treated with BV along with carboxymethylcellulose), arthritic group treated with hesperidin (treated with hesperidin along with saline), and arthritic group treated with BV and hesperidin (treated with BV and hesperidin concurrently).


Bee venom and/or hesperidin successfully reversed the CFA-arthritis-induced increases in right hind leg paw swelling, leukocytes' count, liver lipid peroxidation, serum inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-2 and IL-12) levels and spleen tumor necrosis factor-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Moreover, the CFA-induced down-regulation in serum IL-10 level and spleen IL-4 messenger ribonucleic acid expression as well as the deterioration in the antioxidant defense system were significantly improved as a result of BV and hesperidin administration. Both treatments also markedly counteracted the severe inflammatory changes and leukocytic infiltration in the periarticular tissue of the ankle joints. In addition, BV and hesperidin obviously amended the lymphoid hyperplasia in white pulps of spleen as well as the widening of the medulla and mononuclear cell infiltration found in thymus.


Bee venom and hesperidin administration produced their ameliorative effects on rheumatoid arthritis via their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials. BV plus hesperidin particularly seemed to be the most potent in improving rheumatoid arthritis in Wistar rats.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat High Cholesterol

Lipid-lowering effect of propolis in mice with Triton-WR1339-induced hyperlipidemia and its mechanism for regulating lipid metabolism [Article in Chinese]

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018 Jul 30;38(8):1020-1024

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To evaluate the therapeutic effect of propolis against Triton-WR1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice and explore the underlying mechanism.


C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10), including the control group, hyperlipidemia model group, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) treatment group, and 4 treatment groups treated with low- (30 mg/kg) or high-dose (60 mg/kg) propolis HB01 or HB02. In all but the control group, acute hyperlipidemia models were established by intramuscular injection of Triton WR-1339, and corresponding treatments were administered via gastric lavage for 7 days. After the treatments, blood samples were collected for testing the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), highdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT); Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of the proteins involved in lipid metabolism in the liver tissues including ABCA1, ABCG8, LDLR, and SR-B1.


Compared with the normal control group, the mice with Triton-WR1339-induced hyperlipidemia showed significantly increased levels of TC, TG, LDL, MDA, GPT, and GOT and lowered HDL-C levels and SOD activity (P < 0.05). Treatments with fenofibrate and the 2 propolis at either low or high dose significantly reversed Triton-WR1339-induced changes in blood lipids (P < 0.05), and the effects of propolis were more potent. Triton-WR1339 injection also significantly decreased the expressions levels of ABCA1, ABCG8, LDLR, and SR-B1 in the liver (P < 0.05), and these changes were obviously reversed by treatments with fenofibrate and propolis (P < 0.05), especially by the latter.


The lipid-lowering effects of propolis are mediated by improving lipid metabolism and regulating the expressions of lipid transport proteins in the liver tissue.

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Probiotic Honey Has Beneficial Effects on Insulin Metabolism (Diabetes, Diabetic Nephropathy), Total-/HDL-Cholesterol, Serum Hs-CRP, And Plasma MDA Levels

The Effects of Probiotic Honey Consumption on Metabolic Status in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

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Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018 Sep 14

To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first evaluating the effects of probiotic honey intake on glycemic control, lipid profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN).

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic honey intake on metabolic status in patients with DN. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 patients with DN.

Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 25 g/day probiotic honey containing a viable and heat-resistant probiotic Bacillus coagulans T11 (IBRC-M10791) (108 CFU/g) or 25 g/day control honey (n = 30 each group) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and 12 weeks after supplementation to quantify glycemic status, lipid concentrations, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress.

After 12 weeks of intervention, patients who received probiotic honey compared with the control honey had significantly decreased serum insulin levels (- 1.2 ± 1.8 vs. - 0.1 ± 1.3 μIU/mL, P = 0.004) and homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (- 0.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.003 ± 0.4, P = 0.002) and significantly improved quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+ 0.005 ± 0.009 vs. - 0.0007 ± 0.005, P = 0.004).

Additionally, compared with the control honey, probiotic honey intake has resulted in a significant reduction in total-/HDL-cholesterol (- 0.2 ± 0.5 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Probiotic honey intake significantly reduced serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (- 1.9 ± 2.4 vs. - 0.2 ± 2.7 mg/L, P = 0.01) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (- 0.1 ± 0.6 vs. + 0.6 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P = 0.002) compared with the control honey. Probiotic honey intake had no significant effects on other metabolic profiles compared with the control honey.

Overall, findings from the current study demonstrated that probiotic honey consumption for 12 weeks among DN patients had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism, total-/HDL-cholesterol, serum hs-CRP, and plasma MDA levels, but did not affect other metabolic profiles.

Friday, September 14, 2018

Royal Jelly, Brazilian Green Propolis May Help Treat Allergic Rhinitis (Allergies, Itchy, Watering Eyes, Sneezing)

Effect of Royal Jelly and Brazilian Green Propolis on the Signaling for Histamine H1 Receptor and Interleukin-9 Gene Expressions Responsible for the Pathogenesis of the Allergic Rhinitis

Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41(9):1440-1447

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The significant correlation between nasal symptom scores and level of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) mRNA in nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis, suggesting that H1R gene is an allergic disease sensitive gene. We demonstrated that H1R and interleukin (IL)-9 gene are the allergic rhinitis (AR)-sensitive genes and protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) signaling and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling are involved in their expressions, respectively. Honey bee products have been used to treat allergic diseases. However, their pathological mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-allergic effect of royal jelly (RJ) and Brazilian green propolis (BGPP). Treatment with RJ and BGPP decreased in the number of sneezing on toluene 2,4-diissocyanate (TDI)-stimulated rats. The remarkable suppression of H1R mRNA in nasal mucosa was observed. RJ and BGPP also suppressed the expression of IL-9 gene. RJ and BGPP suppressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced Tyr311 phosphorylation of PKCδ in HeLa cells. In RBL-2H3 cells, RJ and BGPP also suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression. These results suggest that RJ and BGPP improve allergic symptoms by suppressing PKCδ and NFAT signaling pathways, two important signal pathways for the AR pathogenesis, and suggest that RJ and BGPP could be good therapeutics against AR.

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Honey Mouthwash Helps Treat Mucositis Caused by Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The effect of an oral care protocol and honey mouthwash on mucositis in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy: a single-blind clinical trial

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Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Sep 11


The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of honey mouthwash and an oral care protocol on mucositis and weight loss in patients with acute myeloid leukemia receiving chemotherapy.


In this single-blind clinical trial, 53 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving chemotherapy were randomly assigned into three groups: honey mouthwash (n = 17), oral care (n = 17), and control (n = 19). The severity of mucositis and weights was examined blindly at the baseline and 4-week follow-up.


The prevalence of grades of mucositis in the study groups was significant at the end of the third (p = 0.002) and fourth (p < 0.001) weeks. The mucositis severity decreased at the end of the third and fourth weeks in the honey mouthwash group (p < 0.05), whereas it increased in the control group (p < 0.001). The difference in the weight was significant between the honey mouthwash and the control groups (p < 0.05, MD = 1.95) at the end of the third week, and between the honey mouthwash group with the control (p < 0.01, MD = 2.92) and oral care groups (p < 0.05, MD = 1.95) at the end of the fourth week.


Honey mouthwash is effective in preventing and reducing the severity of mucositis, and weight loss and can be recommended for patients undergoing chemotherapy.


The results of this study suggest that honey mouthwash can reduce the incidence and severity of mucositis in patients, reduce or eliminate the possibility of weight loss in them, as well as encourage some weight gain. Compared to routine oral care, honey mouthwash is also easier to use and handle.

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Propolis May Help Treat Colitis

Propolis from Different Geographic Origins Decreases Intestinal Inflammation and Bacteroides spp. Populations in a Model of DSS‐Induced Colitis 

Molecular Nutrition, Volume62, Issue17
September 2018

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1 Scope

Dietary supplementation with polyphenol‐rich propolis can protect against experimentally induced colitis. We examined whether different polyphenol compositions of Chinese propolis (CP) and Brazilian propolis (BP) influence their ability to protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‐induced colitis in rats.

2 Methods and results

HPLC‐DAD/Q‐TOF‐MS analysis confirmed that polyphenol compositions of CP and BP were dissimilar. Rats were given CP or BP by gavage (300 mg kg−1 body weight) throughout the study, starting 1 week prior to DSS treatment for 1 week followed by 3 d without DSS. CP and BP significantly reduced the colitis disease activity index relative to controls not receiving propolis, prevented significant DSS‐induced colonic tissue damage, and increased resistance to DSS‐induced colonic oxidative stress as shown by reduced malonaldehyde levels and increased T‐AOC levels. CP and BP significantly reduced DSS‐induced colonic apoptosis. Colonic inflammatory markers IL‐1β, IL‐6, and MCP‐1 were suppressed by CP and BP, whereas only BP‐induced expression of TGF‐β. CP, not BP, increased the diversity and richness of gut microbiota populations. Both forms of propolis significantly reduced populations of Bacteroides spp.

3 Conclusions

Despite the dissimilar polyphenol compositions of CP and BP, their ability to protect against DSS‐induced colitis is similar. Nevertheless, some different physiological impacts were observed.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Bee Venom May Help Treat Cancer, Tuberculosis (TB), HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

Venom as therapeutic weapon to combat dreadful diseases of 21st century: A systematic review on cancer, TB, and HIV/AIDS

Microb Pathog. 2018 Sep 6. pii: S0882-4010(18)31390-1

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Cancer and infectious diseases are the preeminent causes of human morbidities and mortalities worldwide. At present, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are considered as predominant options in order to treat cancer. But these therapies provide inadequate consequences by affecting both the normal and tumor cells. On the other hand, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections are significant threats, causing over a million mortalities each year.

The extensive applications of antibiotics have caused the microbes to acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics. With the emerging dilemma of drug resistant microbes, it has become imperative to identify novel therapeutic agents from natural sources as emphatic alternative approach. Over the past few decades, venoms derived from several reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods including snakes, scorpions, frogs, spiders, honey bees, wasps, beetles, caterpillars, ants, centipedes, sponges etc. have been identified as efficient therapeutics. Venoms constitute plethora of bioactive components, particularly peptides, enzymes, and other chemical entities, which exhibit a large array of anticancer and anti-pathogenic activities.

This review highlights the panorama of bioactive components of animal venoms divulging the anticancer, anti-tubercular, and anti-HIV activities. In a nutshell, this context discloses the decisive role of animal venoms as alternative natural resources to combat these deadly diseases of 21st century, and propounding the plausible development of new therapeutic drugs in the present era.

Monday, September 10, 2018

Analysis of Manuka Honey’s Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Capacities

Protective effects of Manuka honey on LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Part 1: Enhancement of cellular viability, regulation of cellular apoptosis and improvement of mitochondrial functionality

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Sep 3;121:203-213

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Manuka honey (MH) is a monofloral honey from Australia and New Zealand, well-known for its healthy properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing capacities.

The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic composition and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of MH, as well as its effects on cellular viability, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, highlighting the molecular mechanisms involved.

Up to 18 compounds were identified in MH, with gallic acid and quercetin as the major ones; MH showed also remarkable TAC. In addition, MH was able to enhance cellular viability, decrease apoptosis, promote wound healing and attenuate inflammation in a dose-dependent manner, by reducing the expression of caspase 3, p-p38 and p-Erk1/2 proteins, in macrophages stressed with LPS. In addition, it improved mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic activities, stimulating the expression of p-AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC1α, counteracting in this way the deleterious effects of LPS treatment.

In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which MH exerts its beneficial effects could be to its capacity to improve cellular viability, promote proliferation and enhance energetic metabolism, by modulating the expression of several proteins involved in apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Saturday, September 08, 2018

Bee Venom May Help Treat Eczema


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Bee venom and its major component, melittin, may be effective treatments for atopic dermatitis (or eczema), according to a British Journal of Pharmacology study.

Through studies conducted in mice and in human cells, investigators found that bee venom and melittin suppress inflammation through various mechanisms on immune cells and inflammatory molecules.

"This study demonstrated that bee venom and melittin have immunomodulatory activity, and such activity was associated with the regulation of T helper cell differentiation, thereby ameliorating the inflammatory skin diseases caused by atopic dermatitis," the authors wrote.

Friday, September 07, 2018

Antiviral Activity of Mexican Propolis Against Canine Distemper Virus (Pets)

Comparison between In Vitro Antiviral Effect of Mexican Propolis and Three Commercial Flavonoids against Canine Distemper Virus

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 Aug 6;2018:7092416

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Propolis is a resin that honey bees (Apis mellifera) produce by mixing wax, exudates collected from tree shoots, pollen, and enzymes. It has been used for its biological properties against pathogenic microorganisms including those of viral origin.

In the present study, we demonstrate the antiviral effect of Mexican propolis, as well as of the three commercial flavonoids (quercetin, naringenin, and pinocembrin) present in its composition, in cell cultures infected with Canine Distemper Virus.

The treatments were carried out with propolis, flavonoids individually, and a mixture of the three flavonoids at three different times. Antiviral activity was evaluated by the inhibition of the relative expression of the virus nucleoprotein gene (Real-Time qPCR) and by the determination of cellular viability (MTT assay). Propolis applied before infection decreased viral expression (0.72 versus 1.0, 1.65, and 1.75 relative expressions) and correlated with increased cell viability (0.314 versus 0.215, 0.259, and 0.237 absorbance units (AU)).

The administration of a flavonoid mixture containing the three commercial flavonoids before infection induces a slight decrease in viral expression (0.93 versus 1, 1.42, and 1.82 relative expressions); however, it does not improve cellular viability (0.255 versus 0.247, 0.282, and 0.245 AU). Quercetin administrated at the same time of infection decreases viral expression (0.90 versus 1.0, 3.25, and 1.02 relative expressions) and improves cellular viability (0.294 versus 0.240, 0.250, and 0.245 AU). Pinocembrin and naringenin individually did not show any antiviral activity at the administration times evaluated in this study.

The present work is the first in vitro study of the effect of propolis in Canine Distemper Virus and demonstrated the antiviral activity of Mexican propolis, in addition to the synergy that exists between the three flavonoids on cell viability and the expression of the nucleoprotein virus gene.

Thursday, September 06, 2018

Brazilian Green Propolis Components Show Anti-Cancer Activity

Anticancer activity of the supercritical extract of Brazilian green propolis and its active component, artepillin C: Bioinformatics and experimental analyses of its mechanisms of action

Int J Oncol. 2018 Mar;52(3):925-932

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Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees by mixing their saliva with plant sources, including tree bark and leaves and then mixed with secreted beeswax, possesses a variety of bioactivities.

Whereas caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been recognized as a major bioactive ingredient in New Zealand propolis, Brazilian green propolis, on the other hand, possesses artepillin C (ARC).

In this study, we report that, similar to CAPE, ARC docks into and abrogates mortalin-p53 complexes, causing the activation of p53 and the growth arrest of cancer cells. Cell viability assays using ARC and green propolis-supercritical extract (GPSE) revealed higher cytotoxicity in the latter, supported by nuclear translocation and the activation of p53.

Furthermore, in vivo tumor suppression assays using nude mice, we found that GPSE and its conjugate with γ cyclodextrin (γCD) possessed more potent anticancer activity than purified ARC. GPSE‑γCD may thus be recommended as a natural, effective and economic anticancer amalgam.

Wednesday, September 05, 2018

Propolis Component May Help Treat Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) reverses fibrosis caused by chronic colon inflammation in murine model of colitis

Pathol Res Pract. 2018 Aug 24. pii: S0344-0338(18)30831-8

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Fibrosis is known to be the hallmarks of chronic inflammation of the bowel. Epithelial damage due to inflammation compromises the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. This barrier dysfunction leads to further spread of inflammation resulting in a chronic state of inflammation. This chronic inflammation leads to development of fibrosis, which has very limited therapeutic options and usually requires surgical removal of the affected tissue.

Our previous work has shown that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, found in propolis, has been found to be protective in experimental colitis via enhancement of epithelial barrier function. However, the impact of CAPE on resolution of fibrosis in the long-term is unknown. The aim of this follow up study was to investigate the effect of CAPE on colon fibrosis in a chronic model of Dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis in mice. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) 2.5% w/v was administered in drinking water to induce colitis in C57/BL6 mice for 5 days on the 6th day DSS was stopped and test group mice were treated with intraperitoneal administration of CAPE (30 mg kg-1 day-1) for a further 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length and tissue histology and level of tissue fibrosis was observed.

CAPE-treated mice had significantly lower levels of DAI, tissue inflammation scores and fibrosis as compared with control group. Our results show that CAPE is effective in resolving colon fibrosis in chronic inflammation.

Thus, we can conclude CAPE could be a potential therapeutic agent for further clinical investigations for treatment of fibrosis in inflammatory bowel diseases in humans.

Tuesday, September 04, 2018

Irish Heather Honey Has High Phenolic Content (Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antidiabetic Anti-Inflammatory)

Irish honey among world’s healthiest, study finds

The Irish Times

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Irish heather honey contains health benefits comparable with the world renowned manuka honey from New Zealand, according to a study from researchers at Dublin City University and Trinity College Dublin.

Honey provides many benefits for overall health, with antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Manuka honey is produced in New Zealand by bees that pollinate the native manuka bush. Advocates say it has particularly strong properties that are useful for treating wound infections and actually prevents damage to cell tissue.

Multifloral honeys produced by urban bees had a greater level of antioxidant phenolic compounds than their rural counterparts
The Irish research found a similar overall presence of powerful antioxidants called phenolic compounds in Irish heather honey as has been found in manuka honey.

Researchers also found that multifloral honeys produced by urban bees had a greater level of antioxidant phenolic compounds than their rural counterparts – a finding possibly due to the flower diversity and abundance surrounding hives.