Friday, July 01, 2016

Study of Moroccan Propolis

Anti-acetylcholinesterase, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antityrosinase and antixanthine oxidase activities of Moroccan propolis

International Journal of Food Science & Technology

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Biological properties of Moroccan propolis have been scarcely studied. In the present work, the total phenols and flavonoids from 21 samples of propolis collected in different places of Morocco or 3 supplied in the market were determined, as well as the in vitro capacity for inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipoxygenase, tyrosinase, xanthine oxidase and hyaluronidase.

The results showed that samples 1 (region Fez-Boulemane, Sefrou city) (IC50 = 0.065, 0.006, 0.020, 0.050, 0.014 mg mL−1) and 23 (marketed) (IC50 = 0.018, 0.002, 0.046, 0.037, 0.008 mg mL−1) had the best in vitro capacity for inhibiting the α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase activities, respectively. A negative correlation between IC50 values and concentration of phenols, flavones and flavanones was found. These activities corresponded to the generally higher amounts of phenols and flavonoids.

In the same region, propolis samples have dissimilar phenol content and enzyme inhibitory activities.

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Propolis May Help Treat Allergies

Effects of propolis in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis 

American Journal of Otolaryngology

Volume 37, Issue 4, July–August 2016, Pages 287–293

Purpose

The aim of this study was to determine the anti-allergic activity of propolis in an ovalbumin-induced rat model of allergic rhinitis.

Materials and methods

This prospective experimental study was conducted at Hakan Çetinsaya Clinical and Experimental Animal Research Center with 30 rats. After sensitization of all rats with 0.3 mg intraperitoneal ovalbumin plus 30 mg aluminum hydroxide for 14 days (first phase), rats were divided to five groups. In the second phase of the study 10 μL of ovalbumin was applied to each nostril for 21 days. Together with second phase, ketotifen (n:6), oral propolis (n:6), intranasal propolis (n:6) and intranasal mometasone furoate (n:6) were given to rats. A control group (n:4)(salin) and sham group (n:2) were planned. Symptoms were assessed on days 19, 22, 25, 30 and 35, resulting in 5 symptom scores: symptom scores 1–5. On day 35, nasal tissue was removed and histological examination was performed.

Results

When rats that received systemic and intranasal propolis were compared to controls, ciliary loss, inflammation, increase in goblet cells, vascular proliferation, eosinophil count, chondrocytes and allergic rhinitis symptom score were found to be decreased (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

It was found that propolis had anti-allergic effects on allergic symptom scores and nasal histology.

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Bee Venom Peptide, Exhibits Anti-Microbial Activities

Secapin, a bee venom peptide, exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities

Dev Comp Immunol. 2016 May 18;63:27-35

Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents that have various biological, toxicological, and pharmacological actions. However, the biological actions of secapin, a venom peptide in bee venom, remain largely unknown.

Here, we provide the evidence that Asiatic honeybee (Apis cerana) secapin (AcSecapin-1) exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities. The recombinant mature AcSecapin-1 peptide was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. AcSecapin-1 functions as a serine protease inhibitor-like peptide that has inhibitory effects against plasmin, elastases, microbial serine proteases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Consistent with these functions,

AcSecapin-1 inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products, thus indicating the role of AcSecapin-1 as an anti-fibrinolytic agent. AcSecapin-1 also inhibited both human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastases. Furthermore, AcSecapin-1 bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Taken together, our data demonstrated that the bee venom peptide secapin has multifunctional roles as an anti-fibrinolytic agent during fibrinolysis and an anti-microbial agent in the innate immune response.

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Honey Bee Lactic Acid Bacteria Helps Treat Hard-to-Heal Wounds in Horses

Fighting Off Wound Pathogens in Horses with Honeybee Lactic Acid Bacteria

Curr Microbiol. 2016 Jun 21

In the global perspective of antibiotic resistance, it is urgent to find potent topical antibiotics for the use in human and animal infection. Healing of equine wounds, particularly in the limbs, is difficult due to hydrostatic factors and exposure to environmental contaminants, which can lead to heavy bio-burden/biofilm formation and sometimes to infection. Therefore, antibiotics are often prescribed. Recent studies have shown that honeybee-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB), involved in honey production, and inhibit human wound pathogens.

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects on the healing of hard-to-heal equine wounds after treatment with these LAB symbionts viable in a heather honey formulation. For this, we included ten horses with wound duration of >1 year, investigated the wound microbiota, and treated wounds with the novel honeybee LAB formulation. We identified the microbiota using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the honeybee LAB formulation were tested against all wound isolates in vitro. Our results indicate a diverse wound microbiota including fifty-three bacterial species that showed 90 % colonization by at least one species of Staphylococcus.

Treatment with the formulation promoted wound healing in all cases already after the first application and the wounds were either completely healed (n = 3) in less than 20 days or healing was in progress. Furthermore, the honeybee LAB formulation inhibited all pathogens when tested in vitro.

Consequently, this new treatment option presents as a powerful candidate for the topical treatment of hard-to-heal wounds in horses.

Monday, June 27, 2016

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course And Conference (CMACC) October 21-23 2016


October 21-23 2016

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277

Level One: For those new to Apitherapy or those wanting a basic review to include core knowledge of Apitherapy basics (honey, propolis, pollen, royal jelly and bee venom).

Level Two: For those who are more experienced and already practicing Apitherapy wanting more       advanced knowledge in the uses and applications of Apitherapy.

Sunday, June 26, 2016

Ethiopian Honey Shows Antibacterial Activity

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant bacteria in Ayder Referral and Teaching Hospital, Northern Ethiopia

SpringerPlus, 2016 5:842

Background

Multidrug resistance is a global health issue. Hence integration of traditional medicine like honey and modern medicine could be a best option in the treatment of patients infected with drug resistant bacteria. Despite the multi floral and huge honey production in the region, there are no studies that evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Objective

To evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacterial isolates of wound and ear infections.

Methods

Red and white honeys were obtained from three districts Eastern Zone of Tigray namely Temben, Atsbi and Samre. The antibacterial potential of these honeys was determined against multidrug resistant isolates of clinical isolates of bacterial species of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumonia, and five controls bacterial using tube dilutions methods. Undiluted and twofold serial dilutions of honeys were tested to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using broth tube dilution methods through visual inspection and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub-culturing tubes showing no visible sign of growth/turbidity in MIC.

Results

The mean MIC of red honeys for control and test bacteria was 7.7–8.9 and 12.6–17.9 % (v/v) respectively. Whilst the MIC of white honey was 12.2–12.5 % (v/v) for control and 16.1–27.7 % (v/v) for test bacteria. Mean MBC of red honeys for control and test isolates was from 25–40 to 30.4–62.5 % (v/v) respectively, and 40–55 and 60.7–75 % (v/v) for white honeys. Honey collected from Samre area has shown better antibacterial activity than other sites. Similarly red honeys from all areas were found to have better antibacterial activity against the multidrug bacteria than the white honey. Over all the MIC and MBC of all isolates was between 6.25–50 and 12.5–100 % (v/v) respectively.

Conclusion

Red honey from all sites showed better antibacterial activity than the white honey. Likewise, honey from Samre area showed better antibacterial activity than Temben and Atsbi districts. All collected honeys showed varied bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, and none of the isolates was resistant to tested honeys.

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Propolis May Help Stroke Patients

DICHLOROMETHANE EXTRACTS OF PROPOLIS PROTECT CELL FROM OXYGEN-GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS VIA REDUCING APOPTOSIS

Food and Nutrition Research, 2016

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee propolis, a mixture of the secretion from bee tongue gland and wax gland, was collected from the tree bud and barked by bees. The components were rich in terpenes, phenolics, and flavonoids, and had anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotection abilities. However, the potential anti-oxidative stress of propolis was not well documented. This study aimed to study the protective effect of propolis on high-incident nonfatal diseases, such as stroke and cerebral infarction caused by ischemia.

Objective: Oxidative stress caused by acute stroke results in inflammation and injury followed by cell damage and apoptosis. Clarification of the anti-oxidative stress effect of propolis may contribute to stroke prevention and damage reduction.

Design: Propolis was separated and purified into 70% ethanol and dichloromethane extracts systematically. The fraction three (Fr.3) of dichloromethane was further separated into pinocembrin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate, chrysin, and galangin by chromatography. Compounds extracted from propolis were tested for cell-protection effects in an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) N2a cell model. MTT assay, oxidative stress markers measurement, flow cytometry, and QPCR were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis.

Results: All compounds, especially pinocembrin and galangin, enhanced cell viability in OGD-treated N2a cells. In addition, anti-oxidative enzymes were elevated and cellular Ca2+ was reduced. They also had extreme anti-apoptosis effects by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and down-regulating caspase-3 and Bax expression. Taken together, propolis had anti-oxidative effects on stress and protected cells from damage.

Conclusion: The anti-oxidative effect of propolis can be applied to daily food supplements and may benefit stroke patients.

Friday, June 24, 2016

Honeybee Lactic Acid Bacteria Helps Heal Hard-to-Heal Wounds in Horses

Fighting Off Wound Pathogens in Horses with Honeybee Lactic Acid Bacteria

Curr Microbiol. 2016 Jun 21

In the global perspective of antibiotic resistance, it is urgent to find potent topical antibiotics for the use in human and animal infection. Healing of equine wounds, particularly in the limbs, is difficult due to hydrostatic factors and exposure to environmental contaminants, which can lead to heavy bio-burden/biofilm formation and sometimes to infection. Therefore, antibiotics are often prescribed. Recent studies have shown that honeybee-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB), involved in honey production, and inhibit human wound pathogens.

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects on the healing of hard-to-heal equine wounds after treatment with these LAB symbionts viable in a heather honey formulation. For this, we included ten horses with wound duration of  > 1 year, investigated the wound microbiota, and treated wounds with the novel honeybee LAB formulation.

We identified the microbiota using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the honeybee LAB formulation were tested against all wound isolates in vitro. Our results indicate a diverse wound microbiota including fifty-three bacterial species that showed 90 % colonization by at least one species of Staphylococcus.

Treatment with the formulation promoted wound healing in all cases already after the first application and the wounds were either completely healed (n = 3) in less than 20 days or healing was in progress. Furthermore, the honeybee LAB formulation inhibited all pathogens when tested in vitro.

Consequently, this new treatment option presents as a powerful candidate for the topical treatment of hard-to-heal wounds in horses.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Bee Venom May Help Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis

[Effect of bee venom injection on TrkA and TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with collagen-induced arthritis]

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016 Jun 20;36(6):838-841

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the therapeutic effect of acupoint injection of bee venom on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and explore the mechanism of bee venom therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

METHODS:

Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into bee venom treatment group (BV group), CIA model group, and control group. In the former two groups, CIA was induced by injections of collagen II+IFA (0.2 mL) via the tail vein, and in the control group, normal saline was injected instead. The rats in BV group received daily injection of 0.1 mL (3 mg/mL) bee venom for 7 consecutive days. All the rats were assessed for paw thickness and arthritis index from days 14 to 21, and the pain threshold was determined on day 21. The expressions of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion at the level of L4-6 were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively.

RESULTS:

The rats in CIA model group started to show paw swelling on day 10, and by day 14, all the rats in this group showed typical signs of CIA. In BV group, the rats receiving been venom therapy for 7 days showed a significantly smaller paw thickness and a low arthritis index than those in the model group. The pain threshold was the highest in the control group and the lowest in the model group. TRPV1-positive cells and TrkA expression in the dorsal root ganglion was significantly reduced in BV group as compared with that in the model group.

CONCLUSION:

Injection of bee venom can decrease expression of TRPV1 and TrkA in the dorsal root ganglion to produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, suggesting the potential value of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Morocco Carob Honey Protects Liver, Kidneys

Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016 Jun 20;39(1):115-122

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits.

METHODS:

Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily) and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily), and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily). Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done.

RESULTS:

Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure.

CONCLUSION:

It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects.

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Apitherapy Clinic in Oman


Made In Oman: Bee Clinic

Times of Oman, 6/20/2016

NAME: Dr Hassan Talib Mohammed Al Lawati

HOMETOWN: Muscat

COMPANY NAME: Bee Products Healing Centre

BUSINESS TYPE: Medicinal honey and bee products

YEAR STARTED: 2009

CLAIM TO FAME: Healing with honey

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: One, just me

INSPIRATION: The power of nature (and honey) to heal

What inspired you to start your honey business?

I became interested in bee products and honey in 1995 as a researcher and my interest continued to grow as I studied for my PhD in Germany from 2004 to 2008. In 2006 I had my first workshop about the healing benefits of bee products, which was my first step towards starting to offer therapy with bee products, and to start letting people know that bees are not only honey.

How do you describe your business to your neighbour?

I would tell him that my aim is to heal and cure people by going back to the nature and to the medical use of the bees and their products. When I do, I am happy. I would explain to him the miracle of these small creatures and how we can use their gifts to cure ourselves.

What’s your favourite product that you sell?

Bee cocktail, because it is the product that offers everything that we (as humans) need from a nutritional point of view such as proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, vitamins through a combination of the most common bee products: Honey, pollen, royal jelly, and propolis...

Monday, June 20, 2016

Brazilian Red Propolis may Help Treat Leishmaniasis

Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

Nanoscale Res Lett. 2016 Dec;11(1):301

The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases.

The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ε-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay.

The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE).

The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0 μg/mL and 31.3 μg/mL, 47.2 μg/mL, 154.2μg/mL and 193.2 μg/mL for NRPE A1, NRPE A2, NRPE A3 and NRPE A4, respectively. Nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract in co-delivery system and EEP presented cytotoxic activity on Leishmania (V.) braziliensis.

Red propolis extract loaded in nanoparticles has shown to be potential candidates as intermediate products for preparation of various pharmaceutical dosage forms containing red propolis extract in the therapy against negligible diseases such as leishmaniasis.

Sunday, June 19, 2016

Major Royal Jelly Proteins Could Be Used to Culture Human Cell Lines

Evaluation of the major royal jelly proteins as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in culturing human cell lines

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2016 Jun;17(6):476-83

Royal jelly (RJ) is a well-known bioactive substance. It contains large amounts of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), which express growth-factor-like activity in several animal and human cell lines. However, the question on whether MRJPs possess growth-factor-like activity on all types of cell cultures remains.

In order to determine whether MRJPs can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in different types of human cell culture, the proliferation of the complex serum with different ratios of MRJPs/FBS (M/F) was evaluated on five cell lines: 293T, HFL-I, 231, HCT116, and Changliver using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The proliferation activity of the combination of the complex M/F serum with cytokines on the test cell lines was also measured.

The results demonstrated that the complex serum with M/F 6/4 possessed the highest proliferation activity similar to or in excess of FBS. However, no activity of complex medium with M/F 6/4 was observed in 231 cells, indicating a selectivity of MRJPs on cell types. Compared with the complex medium with M/F 6/4, the complex medium with M/F 6/4 together with two cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), promoted proliferations of Changliver, 293T, HCT116, and HFL-I by 18.73%‒56.19% (P < 0.01).

Our findings demonstrate that MRJPs could partially replace FBS in culturing many human cell lines.

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Manuka Honey Promotes Wound Healing

Activation of AMPK/Nrf2 signalling by Manuka honey protects human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative damage by improving antioxidant response and mitochondrial function promoting wound healing

Journal of Functional Foods

Volume 25, August 2016, Pages 38–49

Excessive amounts of free radicals are deleterious for cells, resulting in cell damage, affecting the wound healing process and causing premature ageing or even neoplastic transformation. Here the capacity of Manuka honey (MH) to protect against oxidative damage and improve the process of skin wound healing was investigated. Up to 16 compounds were identified in MH, with leptosin derivatives and methyl syringate as the major ones. MH protected against apoptosis, intracellular ROS production, and lipid and protein oxidative damage. MH also protected mitochondrial functionality, promoted cell proliferation and activated the AMPK/Nrf2/ARE signalling pathway, as well as the expression of the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT. Here we describe for the first time that one of the possible mechanisms by which MH exhibits its ability to promote wound healing could be due to its capacity to improve the antioxidant response by activating AMPK phosphorylation and the ARE response.

Friday, June 17, 2016

Propolis Boosts Wound Healing Effect of Honey

Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats

Acta Med Iran. 2016 Apr;54(4):233-239.

Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties.

This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study.

Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P < 0.05).

The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P < 0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect.