Sunday, June 25, 2017

Propolis Mouthwash Shows Antibacterial Action

Microbiological control and antibacterial action of a propolis-containing mouthwash and control of dental plaque in humans

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Jun 23:1-5

Propolis is a bee product with several biological properties. This study aimed at investigating a propolis-containing mouthwash, its organoleptic properties, microbial contamination and its antibacterial action in vitro. This mouthwash was assessed in vivo to control dental plaque in humans. The presence of microorganisms was analyzed and the minimum inhibitory concentration against Streptococcus mutans was determined.

A comparative study was done in vivo using propolis, chlorhexidine, and propolis plus chlorhexidine in lower concentrations for 14 days. Dental plaque was analyzed by the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index. The odontological product was yellow, cloudy, free of microbial contamination, and exerted an inhibitory action in vitro. Individuals who used a propolis-containing mouthwash for 14 consecutive days in combination or not to chlorhexidine showed a similar PHP index to chlorhexidine alone.

The product exerted an antibacterial action in vitro and in vivo, exhibiting a positive action in the control of dental plaque.

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Ecuadorian Propolis Inhibits Leishmania amazonensis Growth

Chemical profile and anti-leishmanial activity of three Ecuadorian propolis samples from Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi regions

Fitoterapia. 2017 Jun 19. pii: S0367-326X(17)30545-2

Three propolis samples were collected from different regions of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi) and their methanolic extracts were prepared. Preliminary information supplied by TLC and NMR data, allowed us to define two main types of propolis: Cotacachi propoli sample (CPS), rich in flavonoids and Quito and Guayaquil samples (QPS and GPS) containing triterpenic alcohols and acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. Two different approaches based on RP-HPLC preparative procedure and NMR structural determination (CPS) and GC-MS analysis (QPS and GPS) were successfully used for the chemical characterization of their major compounds.

All three propolis extracts were able to inhibit Leishmania amazonensis growth but propolis sample rich in flavonoids was the most active (IC50=17.1±1.7μg/mL). In the literature this is the first study on propolis from Ecuador.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Anti-Ageing Effect of Propolis

Polyphenol profile by UHPLC-MS/MS, anti-glycation, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of several samples of propolis from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):1884-1893


Propolis has promising biological activities. Propolis samples from the Northeast of Bahia, Brazil - sample A from Ribeira do Pombal and B, from Tucano - were investigated, with new information regarding their biological activities.


This paper describes the chemical profile, antioxidant, anti-glycation and cytotoxic activities of these propolis samples.


Ethanol extracts of these propolis samples (EEP) and their fractions were analyzed to determine total phenolic content (TPC); antioxidant capacity through DPPH•, FRAP and lipid peroxidation; anti-glycation activity, by an in vitro glucose (10 mg/mL) bovine serum albumine (1 mg/mL) assay, during 7 d; cytotoxic activity on cancer (SF295, HCT-116, OVCAR-8, MDA-MB435, MX-1, MCF7, HL60, JURKAT, MOLT-4, K562, PC3, DU145) and normal cell lines (V79) at 0.04-25 μg/mL concentrations, for 72 h. The determination of primary phenols by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and volatile organic compounds content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also performed.


The EEP polar fractions exhibited up to 90% protection against lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value for anti-glycation activity of EEP was between 16.5 and 19.2 μg/mL, close to aminoguanidine (IC50 = 7.7 μg/mL). The use of UHPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS allowed the identification of 12 bioactive phenols in the EEP and 24 volatile compounds, all already reported.


The samples present good antioxidant/anti-glycation/cytotoxic activities and a plethora of biologically active compounds. These results suggest a potential role of propolis in targeting ageing and diseases associated with oxidative and carbonylic stress, aggregating value to them.

Thursday, June 22, 2017

Honey to Address Mucositis

Dental Abstracts
Volume 62, Issue 4, July–August 2017, Pages 237–238

The treatment for advanced stage head and neck cancer typically involves radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or their combined use (radio/chemotherapy) in addition to surgical resection.

Radio/chemotherapy is unable to distinguish between normal human cells and malignant proliferating cancer cells and kills both types of cells equally. Oral mucosal cells have a high rate of proliferation and self-renewal and can become a target for radio/chemotherapy. The resulting mucositis is manifest as pain, erythema, and ulcers, leading to patient noncompliance with treatment.

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Brazilian Red Propolis Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Brazilian red propolis effects on peritoneal macrophage activity: nitric oxide, cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene expression

J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Jun 14. pii: S0378-8741(17)30743-2


Propolis has been used in folk medicine since ancient times and it presented inhibitory effect on neutrophil recruitment previously. However, its effect on macrophage obtained from mice remains unclear.


to demonstrate BRP effects on LPS activated peritoneal macrophage.


Peritoneal macrophages, obtained from C57BL6 mice and activated with LPS, were treated with 50 to 80µg/mL of crude extract of Brazilian red propolis (BRP) during 48hours. Cell viability, levels of NO, 20 cytokines and expression of 360 genes were evaluated.


BRP 60µg/ml reduced NO production by 65% without affecting the cell viability and decreased production IL1α, IL1β, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, Il12p70, IL13, MCP1 and GM-CSF. Molecular mechanism beyond the anti-inflammatory activity may be due to BRP-effects on decreasing expression of Mmp7, Egfr, Adm, Gata3, Wnt2b, Txn1, Herpud1, Axin2, Car9, Id1, Vegfa, Hes1, Hes5, Icam1, Wnt3a, Pcna, Wnt5a, Tnfsf10, Ccl5, Il1b, Akt1, Mapk1, Noxa1 and Cdkn1b and increasing expression of Cav1, Wnt6, Calm1, Tnf, Rb1, Socs3 and Dab2.


Therefore, BRP has anti-inflammatory effects on macrophage activity by reducing NO levels and diminished release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and genes, respectively.

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Behavioral Disorders

The role of apitoxin in alleviating propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral impairments in rat pups: The expression pattern of Reelin gene

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jun 13;93:48-56

The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied.

Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated.

Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed. PPA treatment induced several behavioral alterations, as reduced exploratory activity and social behaviors, increased repetitive/stereotypic behaviors, and hyperactivity. In addition, a marked decline of neurotransmitters and down-regulation of Reelin mRNA expression were observed. BV exhibited high efficiency in ameliorating the PPA-induced neurobehavioral alterations, particularly when applied both before and after PPA administration.

Overall, the results implied that BV has merit as a candidate therapeutic treatment to alleviate PPA-induced neurobehavioral disorders.

Monday, June 19, 2017

Honey May Serve as Protective Agent for Peritoneal Adhesion

Comparison of honey and dextrose solution on post-operative peritoneal adhesion in rat model

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jun 10;92:849-855


Peritoneal adhesion between abdominal organs is a complication of surgery. It causes major complications like pain, bowel obstruction, infertility and increases risk of death. Honey is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties potentially relevant for adhesive protection.


Thirty rats were divided into five groups: negative control without any surgical procedure (normal group), control group treated with normal saline, experimental group I treated with 1ml of 10% honey, experimental group II treated with honey at half concentration of group I (honey0.5), and positive control group receiving 1ml of dextrose 5%. Inflammatory, growth and angiogenesis factors (TNF-α, Il-6, IL-1β, TGF-β1 and VEGF) of the adhesion tissue were assessed using ELISA. Antioxidant factors (NO, GSH and MDA) were also assessed using biochemical procedures...


We find that honey can decrease inflammatory, growth and angiogenesis factors which can advance peritoneal adhesion and increase antioxidant factors. Honey could serve as a protective agent for peritoneal adhesion.

Sunday, June 18, 2017

Honey Helps Relieve Pain of Menstrual Cramps

Comparison of the effect of honey and mefenamic acid on the severity of pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017 Jun 16


Primary dysmenorrhea starts simultaneously with menstruation or before it and usually continues for 48-72 h. As a prevalence disorder, it affects about 80-97% of women in the reproductive age. The conventional treatment modalities of primary dysmenorrhea are associated with complications and side effects. In addition, there is a lack of knowledge of the effect of honey on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of honey on the severity of pain in women with dysmenorrhea.


A randomized crossover clinical trial was conducted on 56 female students. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Groups I and II received honey and mefenamic acid in the 'first treatment period', respectively. In the 'second treatment period', the intervention methods were reversed between the groups. Samples recorded the severity of pain during the first 3 days of menstruation.


There were no significant differences in the most severe level of pain in the first and second months of the first treatment period, and the first and second months of the second treatment period between the groups.


Honey and the mefenamic acid capsules led to the same amount of pain relief in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Honey is suggested to be used for pain relief due to its lower side effects and pharmacological complications.

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Propolis Diterpenes as a Remarkable Bio-Source for Drug Discovery Development: A Review

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1290

Propolis is one of the complex, but valuable, bio-sources for discovering therapeutic compounds. Diterpenes are organic compounds composed of four isoprene units and are known for their biological and pharmacological characteristics, such as antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, advancements have been made in the development of antibacterial and anticancer leads from propolis-isolated diterpenes, and scrutiny of these compounds is being pursued. Thus, this review covers the progress in this arena, with a focus on the chemistry and biological activities of propolis diterpenes. It is anticipated that important information, in a comprehensive and concise manner, will be delivered here for better understanding of natural product drug discovery research. View Full-Text

Friday, June 16, 2017

Dietary Supplement with Propolis Helps Treat Urinary Infections

[Evaluation of the effects of a natural dietary supplement with cranberry, Noxamicina® and D-mannose in recurrent urinary infections in perimenopausal women].

Minerva Ginecol. 2017 Aug;69(4):336-341


The female genital apparatus, the urinary tract and the perineal supporting tissues share a common embryological origin, whose differentiation depends on the action of estrogens. In adult women, the progressive decline of the ovarian function, with the ensuing estrogen deprivation, reduces tissue tropism causing urogenital atrophy, which makes these organs much more susceptible to traumatisms and urinary infections. The disorders associated with changes in the urogenital tract of peri- and postmenopausal women have significant clinical relevance, both on account of their chronicity and high frequency of occurrence and on account of their having major repercussions on the quality of life of the women, who often have to call their doctor seeking relief for their symptoms. In general, these patients report having a significant number of episodes of cystitis per year.

With a view to verifying whether the use of a new dietary supplement (Kistinox® Forte sachets) containing cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Noxamicina® (propolis extract) and D-mannose can be of use in the treatment of cystitis, with or without bacteriuria, through the elimination of urinary symptoms, a multicenter clinical study was conducted on 150 women aged 40 to 50 suffering from recurrent episodes of cystitis as attested by at least one positive urine culture during the six months preceding their recruitment.


The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A: 100 women were given Kistinox® Forte, 1 sachet per day during the first 10 days of the month, for 3 months; Group B: 50 women did not receive any treatment to serve as a control group.


The results of the present study show a complete remission of urinary symptoms in 92 women; a slight decrease in urinary symptoms was observed in 5 subjects, whereas 3 women who stopped the treatment after the first cycle were considered drop-outs.


This multicenter clinical study revealed the excellent efficacy and tolerability of Kistinox® Forte sachets in the treatment and prevention of urinary disorders in peri- and postmenopausal women. The posology of a sachet a day during the first 10 days of the month for 3 months was well tolerated by the patients, who did not report any disorder arising from the product.

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Enzymes in Ethiopian Honey

Enzyme activity, amino acid profiles and hydroxymethylfurfural content in Ethiopian monofloral honey

Journal of Food Science and Technology, pp 1–10

The enzymes activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and amino acids in honeys are relatively low. However, they play very significant role for honey quality. In this study, enzymes, amino acids and HMF contents of Ethiopian monofloral honeys were investigated. Diastase, invertase and HMF were analyzed based on the Harmonized International Honey Commission method and amino acids using amino acids analyzer (HPLC).

Diastase activity ranged from 3.91 ± 0.730 (Schefflera abyssinica) to 13.6 ± 2.30 [Becium grandiflorum (L: Lalibella)]; invertase 36.5 ± 1.93 (Leucas abyssinica) to 4.85 ± 2.36 (Schefflera abyssinica); and HMF 0 ± 0 (Hypoestes and Leucas abyssinica) to 3.37 ± 1.73 (Croton macrostachyus). Significant variations were observed among Schefflera abyssinica honeys in diastase content, despite being from the same botanical origin. Significant variations were also observed among Becium grandiflorum honeys in invertase and diastase contents. Bees’ geographical race and location affected enzymes activities. Lower level of enzymes could be an intrinsic characteristic of Ethiopian honey.

Thus, enzymes activity alone cannot be a worthwhile indicator of quality for Ethiopian honey; besides diastase and invertase activity, the quality control of Ethiopian honeys should be supported by HMF parameters.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Portuguese Propolis Harvested in Springtime Shows Higher Antibacterial Activity

Antibacterial activity of propolis extracts from the south of Portugal

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jan;30(1):1-9.

To examine the antibacterial activity of diverse extracts of propolis harvested at winter and spring from several locations of Algarve, Portugal, against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was the main goal of the present work. For such, the antibacterial activity was determined by agar diffusion.

The results showed that all tested bacterial strains showed susceptibility to diluted propolis extracts and in a dose-dependent manner. Two propolis samples collected at springtime showed higher antibacterial activity, in comparison with samples harvested at wintertime. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts have a very similar activity (P < 0.05). Helicobacter pylori strains J99 and 26695 were the most susceptible strains to the tested extracts (33.67±2.52 mm and 35.67±0.58mm, respectively).

This study constitutes the first approach of the biological activities of Portuguese propolis from the Algarve region and evidences its potential use to combat bacterial infections, in particular against the gastric pathogen H. pylori.

Monday, June 12, 2017

Metagenomes of Royal Jelly, Pollen, and Honey from Lavender, Chestnut, and Fir Honeydew

Deeper Insight in Beehives: Metagenomes of Royal Jelly, Pollen, and Honey from Lavender, Chestnut, and Fir Honeydew and Epiphytic and Endophytic Microbiota of Lavender and Rose Flowers

Genome Announc. 2017 Jun 1;5(22). pii: e00425-17

Microbiota of beehive products are very little known. We report here for the first time six metagenomes of royal jelly, pollen, and different types of honey from wild and cultivated lavender, chestnut, and fir honeydew. Four metagenomes of epiphytic and endophytic microbiota of lavender and rose flowers are also reported.

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Propolis Varnish Prevents Cavities

The anti-caries activity and toxicity of an experimental propolis-containing varnish

Braz Oral Res. 2017 Jun 5;31:e45

We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM) and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group): G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV); G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle); G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®); and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum) for 4 weeks.

Total cultivable microbiota and SM were counted, and smooth-surface and sulcal caries were scored. PV, CV and GS cytotoxic effects were tested against fibroblasts. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer test (p ≤ 0.05). Total microbiota and SM counts did not differ among the treatments (p = 0.78), or in relation to the untreated group (p = 0.52). PV reduced development of smooth-surface enamel caries compared with the untreated group (p = 0.0018), with no significant difference from GS (p = 0.92); however, the PV effects were no longer observed when the dentin was affected. Neither PV nor GS prevented enamel sulcal lesion onset, but GS significantly reduced the severity of dentinal sulcal lesions (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in fibroblast viability between PV and GS (p < 0.0001).

In conclusion, PV prevented smooth-surface enamel caries and showed low cell toxicity. Nevertheless, due to the high cariogenic challenge, its effects were not sustained throughout the experiment. Further studies are encouraged to establish a protocol to sustain the long-term anti-caries activity of PV in the oral cavity.

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Antimicrobial Activity of Hungarian Propolis

Comparative studies on polyphenolic profile and antimicrobial activity of propolis samples selected from distinctive geographical areas of Hungary

Food Sci Technol Int. 2017 Jun;23(4):349-357

The present paper reports about a comparative survey on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected propolis samples collected in Hungary. The total levels of polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids in ethanolic extracts of propolis were assessed. The major constituents of ethanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically using a Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Free radical scavenging activities were evaluated by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. In vitro inhibitory activity was investigated against eight different bacterial strains by agar well diffusion assay. An extensive comparison was carried out regarding general parameters and specific polyphenolic components. The experimental data led to the observation that there is considerable variability in terms of the quality and the biological value of the distinctive propolis samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis of the study; versatile experimental results are required for proper, well-reasoned, balanced and standardised industrial applications. The major flavonoid components were found to be chrysin and pinocembrin; however, versatile minor components were also detected.

The total polyphenol content of ethanolic extracts of propolis ranged between 104.6 mg/g and 286.9 mg/g (gallic acid equivalent). The radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis varied between 101.7 mg/g and 286.9 mg/g (ascorbic acid equivalent). As the quality of propolis depends on the season, vegetation and the area of collection, marked differences were found among the different products examined in terms of both composition and general characteristics. The studied samples exhibited significant differences in term of antimicrobial activities.