Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Russian Pilot Konstantin Yaroshenko Jailed in US to Use Bee Venom Therapy to Treat Painful Leg

Health of Russian pilot jailed in US is failing, wife says

The pilot's spouse insists that US doctors do not provide him with medical assistance

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ROSTOV-ON-DON, August 19. /TASS/. The health of Konstantin Yaroshenko, a Russian pilot serving a 20-year sentence in the US, is failing, his wife Viktoria told TASS on Monday.

"He says he is not receiving any medical care, [his leg] is hurting, it is getting worse, so he has decided to use bee venom as a treatment," she said. "He says his leg is hurting so bad that he has trouble walking," Viktoria Yaroshenko added...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Propolis May Prevent Heart Damage in Diabetes Patients


Propolis relieves the cardiotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in diabetic rats via alleviations of paraoxonase-1 and xanthine oxidase genes expression

Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2019 Sep;159:127-135

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Pesticides cardiotoxicity in case of diabetic-induced cardiac complications is unidentified. The probable amelioration role of propolis is gauged against the cardiotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in the diabetic rats through paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and xanthine oxidase (XO) genes dysregulation.

Fifty-six male rats were distributed (n = 7) into eight groups. The first one saved as control whereas the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th were kept for propolis aqueous extract (100 mg/kg), diabetes (60 mg/kg streptozotocin) and chlorpyrifos (2.5 mg/kg), respectively. The 5th was diabetes/chlorpyrifos combination, while 6th, 7th, and 8th were intubated with propolis for four weeks after diabetic induction, chlorpyrifos intoxication, and their combination, respectively. The plasma glucose, lipid profiles, cardiac enzymes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) significantly elevated, while insulin decreased in the diabetic and combination groups.

Although the cardiac acetylcholinesterase, total thiols, and PON1 significantly reduced after diabetic and/or chlorpyrifos gavage, the protein carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and XO significantly elevated. The mRNA genes expression of PON1 and XO have also confirmed the enzymatic activities. Interestingly, propolis significantly restored the hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, IL-6 elevations, and antioxidant defense system disorder.

These records revealed that the immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic and antioxidant tasks are fine pointers for the cardiovascular defender of propolis especially during diabetes and/or pesticides exposure.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Manuka Honey Shows Antimicrobial Activity Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli)


Evaluation of Physiological Effects Induced by Manuka Honey Upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Microorganisms. 2019 Aug 13;7(8). pii: E258

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Several studies have explored the antimicrobial properties of manuka honey (MkH). However, the data available regarding antibacterial action mechanisms are scarcer. The aim of this study was to scrutinize and characterize primary effects of manuka honey (MkH) upon the physiological status of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria models, respectively), using flow cytometry (FC) to reveal its antibacterial action mechanisms. Effects of MkH on membrane potential, membrane integrity and metabolic activity were assessed using different fluorochromes in a 180 min time course assay. Time-kill experiments were carried out under the same conditions. Additionally, MkH effect on efflux pumps was also studied in an E. coli strain with an over-expression of several efflux pumps. Exposure of bacteria to MkH resulted in physiological changes related to membrane potential and membrane integrity; these effects displayed slight differences among bacteria. MkH induced a remarkable metabolic disruption as primary physiological effect upon S. aureus and was able to block efflux pump activity in a dose-dependent fashion in the E. coli strain.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Damage to Liver by Alcohol


Alterations in the Transcriptional Profile of the Liver Tissue and the Therapeutic Effects of Propolis Extracts in Alcohol-induced Steatosis in Rats

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2019 Aug 12;91(3):e20180646

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The hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) on alcohol-induced liver steatosis were investigated in Wistar rats. Chronic alcoholic fatty liver was induced by administration of 52% alcohol to male Wistar rats at the dose of 1% body weight for 7 weeks. Then animals were simultaneously treated with 50% ethanol solutions of EEP or normal saline at the dose of 0.1% body weight for 4 further weeks. Serological analyses and liver histopathology studies were performed to investigate the development of steatosis. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the alterations of hepatic gene expression profiling. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of EEP helped to restore the levels of various blood indices, liver function enzymes and the histopathology of liver tissue to normal levels. Results from the microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis were significantly down-regulated by EEP treatment, while the transcriptional expressions of functional genes participating in fatty acids oxidation were markedly increased. The ability of EEP to reduce the negative effects of alcohol on liver makes propolis a potential natural product for the alternative treatment of alcoholic fatty liver.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Propolis May Protect the Hearts of Diabetes Patients


Propolis relieves the cardiotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in diabetic rats via alleviations of paraoxonase-1 and xanthine oxidase genes expression

Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2019 Sep;159:127-135

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Pesticides cardiotoxicity in case of diabetic-induced cardiac complications is unidentified. The probable amelioration role of propolis is gauged against the cardiotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in the diabetic rats through paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and xanthine oxidase (XO) genes dysregulation. Fifty-six male rats were distributed (n = 7) into eight groups.

The first one saved as control whereas the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th were kept for propolis aqueous extract (100 mg/kg), diabetes (60 mg/kg streptozotocin) and chlorpyrifos (2.5 mg/kg), respectively. The 5th was diabetes/chlorpyrifos combination, while 6th, 7th, and 8th were intubated with propolis for four weeks after diabetic induction, chlorpyrifos intoxication, and their combination, respectively. The plasma glucose, lipid profiles, cardiac enzymes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) significantly elevated, while insulin decreased in the diabetic and combination groups.

Although the cardiac acetylcholinesterase, total thiols, and PON1 significantly reduced after diabetic and/or chlorpyrifos gavage, the protein carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and XO significantly elevated. The mRNA genes expression of PON1 and XO have also confirmed the enzymatic activities.

Interestingly, propolis significantly restored the hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, IL-6 elevations, and antioxidant defense system disorder.

These records revealed that the immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic and antioxidant tasks are fine pointers for the cardiovascular defender of propolis especially during diabetes and/or pesticides exposure.

Monday, August 12, 2019

Bee Pollen May Help Treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Colitis

Protective effects of Bee pollen extract on the Caco-2 intestinal barrier dysfunctions induced by dextran sulfate sodium

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Sep;117:109200

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Bee pollen (BP) is a natural medicine from the hive with various potential health-promoting benefits, but until now there is no study to determine its protective roles in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

The aim of this study was to reveal the in vitro gastrointestinal protective effects of BP against IBD using molecular and metabolic methods. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) challenged Caco-2 cell monolayers were applied to mimic intestinal epithelial cell dysfunctions and metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with BP extract rich in polyphenols ameliorated DSS-induced cell viability losses. It also exerted protective effects against intestinal barrier impairment by strengthening epithelial integrity and tight junction losses induced by DSS. BP up-regulated anti-oxidant (NQO1, Txnrd1, Nrf2) and down-regulated inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) mRNA expressions, in accompany with MAPK signaling inhibition.

Furthermore, metabolomics analysis based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS revealed that BP, and DSS treated Caco-2 cells have different metabolomic profiles, with significant changes on key metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism.

Our results showed that BP has great therapeutic potential throughout the early stages of DSS-induced colitis.

Sunday, August 11, 2019

East Java Propolis Helps Prevent Dental Granuloma (chronic apical periodontitis)


East java extract propolis as potential intracanal medicament in experimentally induced chronic apical periodontitis

Indian J Dent Res. 2019 May-Jun;30(3):342-346

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Introduction:

A persistent infection after cleaning and shaping root canal is the main etiology of root canal treatment failure. Enterococcus faecalis has been considered as one of the most resistant species in root canal treatment. E. faecalis can stimulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) which can increase nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFATc1) in chronic apical periodontitis. East Java propolis has antibacterial effects and is biocompatible with in vitro effects.

Aim:

This study is aimed to analyze the East Java propolis extract as potential intracanal medicament in chronic apical periodontitis caused by E. faecalis bacterial infection.

Materials and Methods:

This study used 30 Wistar rats divided into three groups. In Group I, the first upper right molar tooth as healthy tooth was used for negative control group. In Group II, the first upper right molar tooth was used for a prepared root canal, and 10 ml brain heart infusion broth containing E. faecalis ATCC29212 106 CFU was injected into the canal and restored with glass-ionomer cement (GIC) for the experimentally induced chronic apical periodontitis group. In Group III, after root canal preparation, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 106 CFU was injected, and then, 10 μl propolis applied and tooth restored with GIC. It took 21 days for the periapical lesions to develop after pulp infection. The rats were then sacrificed to conduct immunohistochemical examinations in order to measure the expressions of RANKL and NFATc1.

Results:

The average of RANKL and NFATc1 expression in Group III was significantly lower than those in the experimentally induced chronic apical periodontitis group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that East Java propolis extract is a potential intracanal medicament through the study of experimentally induced chronic apical periodontitis caused by E. faecalis infection in Wistar rats.

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Honey Useful in Preventing Spread of Hospital Infections

Novel nano-composite hydrogels with honey effective against multi-resistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Aug 9

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Novel alginate hydrogels with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and honey components were produced with the aim to target multidrug-resistant bacterial strains causing nosocomial wound infections. AgNP synthesis was optimized in highly concentrated honey solutions so that a 5-month stable, colloid solution with 50% of honey and ~ 8 nm AgNPs at neutral pH was obtained.

The colloid solution was further used to produce nano-composite Ag/alginate hydrogels in different forms (microbeads, microfibers and discs) that retained all AgNPs and high fractions of honey components (40-60%) as determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. The hydrogels were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy while the antibacterial activity was investigated against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including 13 multi-resistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, one clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one clinical strain of Staphylococcus aureus.

At the total released silver concentration of ~ 9 μg/ml, the hydrogels exhibited strong bactericidal activity against standard and most of the investigated multi-resistant hospital strains with the exemption of 3 clinical strains of A. baumannii in which antibacterial effects were absent.

These results reveal the need for further in-depth studies of bacterial resistance mechanisms and, in the same time, potentials of the novel Ag/alginate hydrogels with honey components to combat wound infections and enhance healing as non-sticky, antibacterial, and bioactive dressings.

Friday, August 09, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Osteoarthritis (Arthritis, Aging)


Propolis Reduces the Expression of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Chondrocytes under Interleukin-1β Stimulus

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Aug 1;20(15). pii: E3768

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BACKGROUND:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and multifactorial disease that is associated with aging. A number of changes occur in aged cartilage, such as increased oxidative stress, decreased markers of healthy cartilage, and alterations in the autophagy pathway. Propolis extracts contain a mixture of polyphenols and it has been proved that they have high antioxidant capacity and could regulate the autophagic pathway. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on chondrocytes that were stimulated with IL-1β.

METHODS:

Rabbit chondrocytes were isolated and stimulated with IL-1β and treated with EEP. We evaluated cell viability, nitric oxide production, healthy cartilage, and OA markers, and the expression of three proteins associated with the autophagy pathway LC3, ATG5, and AKT1.

RESULTS:

The EEP treatment reduces the expression of LC3, ATG5, and AKT1, reduces the production of nitric oxide, increases the expression of healthy markers, and reduces OA markers.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that treatment with EEP in chondrocytes that were stimulated with IL-1β has beneficial effects, such as a decrease in the expression of proteins associated with autophagy, MMP13, and production of nitric oxide, and also increased collagen II.

Thursday, August 08, 2019

Kourtney Kardashian Takes a Spoonful of This $36 Honey Every Day

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In one of her most recent tell-all articles, Kardashian detailed the tonics and supplements she uses daily. Beyond expected picks like Vital Proteins collagen powder, one product stood out: a $36 “superfood” honey. Yes, you read that correctly.

European Propolis Highly Effective Against Protozoal Pathogens (Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense, Leishmania mexicana, Crithidia fasciculata, Sleeping Sickness, Nagana, Leishmaniasis)


European propolis is highly active against trypanosomatids including Crithidia fasciculata

Sci Rep. 2019 Aug 6;9(1):11364

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Extracts of 35 samples of European propolis were tested against wild type and resistant strains of the protozoal pathogens Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Leishmania mexicana. The extracts were also tested against Crithidia fasciculata a close relative of Crithidia mellificae, a parasite of bees. Crithidia, Trypanosoma and Leishmania are all members of the order Kinetoplastida.

High levels of activity were obtained for all the samples with the levels of activity varying across the sample set. The highest levels of activity were found against L. mexicana. The propolis samples were profiled by using liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and principal components analysis (PCA) of the data obtained indicated there was a wide variation in the composition of the propolis samples.

Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) associated a butyrate ester of pinobanksin with high activity against T. brucei whereas in the case of T. congolense high activity was associated with methyl ethers of chrysin and pinobanksin. In the case of C. fasciculata highest activity was associated with methyl ethers of galangin and pinobanksin.

OPLS modelling of the activities against L. mexicana using the mass spectrometry produced a less successful model suggesting a wider range of active components.

Wednesday, August 07, 2019

Brazilian Red Propolis May Help Prevent Dental Cavities


Cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of a red propolis mouthwash, with or without fluoride, on the growth of a cariogenic biofilm

Arch Oral Biol. 2019 Jul 30;107:104512

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OBJECTIVE:

To evaluatein vitro the antibacterial activity, the antibiofilm effect and the cytotoxic potential of mouthwashes containing Brazilian red propolis with or without fluoride.

METHODS:

The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) against S. mutans, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius and L. casei were determined for RPE mouthwashes. A cariogenic biofilm with the aforementioned bacteria was formed over cellulose membrane disks (N = 30, 13 mm), which were submitted for 1 min to the following mouthwashes: plain mouthwash base; 0.05% NaF; 0.8% RPE; 0.8% RPE + 0.05% NaF and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX). The bacterial viability and the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) were measured. Cytotoxic potential of the mouthwashes was also evaluated. For bacterial viability and EPS production, Mann-Withney and one-way ANOVA tests were performed followed by Tukey, with results considered significant when p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS:

MIC and MBC values of RPE mouthwashes ranged from 7.44 to 29.76 mg/mL and from 7.44 to ≥59.52 mg/mL, respectively, presenting better action against S. salivarius. RPE mouthwashes showed 44% of viable cells after 1 min of contact with fibroblasts. RPE (7.74) had the greatest reduction of viable total microorganisms and did not differ from the RPE + NaF (7.95) (p = 0.292). CHX (7.54) was the most effective in reducing Streptococcus spp, but did not differ from RPE (p = 0.521) and RPE + NaF (p = 0.238). There was no difference between the treatments regarding EPS production.

CONCLUSION:

RPE and RPE + NaF mouthwash showed similar antibacterial activity, toxicity level and antibiofilm effect compared to CHX.

Tuesday, August 06, 2019

Penile Denudation Successfully Treated with Manuka Honey Dressings


Benign tumours leading to total penile denudation treated with Manuka honey dressings: A case report and review of literature

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Int J Surg Case Rep. 2019 Jul 19;61:191-194

INTRODUCTION:

Penile denudation is a devastating condition often reconstructed with a split-thickness skin graft (STSG). As this kind of reconstruction is challenging, we present an non-invasive treatment using Manuka honey dressings with a satisfying result. This was performed as a salvage procedure after failed STSG.

CASE:

A 55-year-old non-smoking male was admitted from his general practitioner with a newly onset of phimosis and lower urinary tract symptoms. Benign tumours complicated with infection were found on all segments of the penis causing dehiscence of the skin. After surgical removal of tumours and an unsuccessful STSG, Manuka honey dressings was used. Full sexual function was regained, and the patient was satisfied with the result.

DISCUSSION:

Alternatives to STSG are full-thickness skin graft using the inguinal or scrotal borrowing method, or using a dermal matrix before a STSG. A rediscovered method is using Manuka honey, with its unique combination of bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and healing-promoting properties. A wide range of wound types may benefit from Manuka honey dressings. A recent Danish in vitro study on honey derived from various Danish floras even shows high antibacterial effect superior to commercial medical grade honey. Considering a growing resistance to antibiotics, medical honey may contribute as a alternative to extensive wound care.

CONCLUSION:

We successfully treated a penile denudation with Manuka honey following a failed STSG. Wounds, ulcers, and burns may be infected, and can be challenging, time consuming, and expensive to treat. Manuka honey may be a good alternative to reconstructive surgery and can be managed on an out-patient basis.

Monday, August 05, 2019

Indonesian Stingless Bee Propolis Shows Anti-Tumor Activity (Cancer, Tumour, Anti-Angiogenic, Angiogenesis)


Preliminary studies: the potential anti-angiogenic activities of two Sulawesi Island (Indonesia) propolis and their chemical characterization

Heliyon. 2019 Jul 19;5(7):e01978

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Several studies have previously reported propolis, or its constituents, to inhibit tumour angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenic activity of two Indonesian stingless bee propolis extracts from Sulawesi Island on vascular cells were assessed. Sample D01 was obtained from the outer side of bee hives, while D02 was from the inner side of the same hives.

The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The anti-angiogenic capacity was assessed on HUVECs and placenta-derived pericytes by cell viability, multi-channel wound healing, and CoCl2 based-hypoxia assays. The exact chemical composition has not been confirmed. The most abundant compounds in Indonesian sample D01 seem to be unusual since they do not immediately fall into a clear class.

Two of the most abundant compounds have elemental compositions matching actinopyrones. Identification on the basis of elemental composition is not definitive but compounds in D01 are possibly due to unusually modified terpenoids. Sample D02 has abundant compounds which include four related diterpenes with differing degrees of oxygenation and some sesquiterpenes. However, again the profile is unusual.

The anti-angiogenic assays demonstrated that D01 elicited a strong cytotoxic effect and a considerable anti-migratory activity on the vascular cells. Although D02 demonstrated a much weaker cytotoxic effect on the cell lines compared to D01, it elicited a substantial protective effect on the pericytes against CoCl2-induced dropout in an experiment to mimic a micro-environment commonly associated with angiogenesis and tumour growth.

These results demonstrate modulatory effects of these propolis samples in vascular cells, which requires further investigation.

Friday, August 02, 2019

Brazilian Organic Propolis Has Strong Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Anti-inflammatory and anti-Candida effects of Brazilian organic propolis, a promising source of bioactive molecules and functional food

J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Aug 1

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Brazilian organic propolis (BOP) is an unexplored Brazilian propolis that is produced organically and certified according to international legislation.

Our results showed that BOP has strong anti-inflammatory effects and acts by reducing NF-кB activation, TNF-α release and neutrophil migration. In addition, BOP6 exhibited antifungal activity on planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsisolis, and it reduced in vitro yeast cell adhesion to human keratinocytes at sub-inhibitory concentrations. BOP demonstrated significantly low toxicity in Galleria melonella larvae at antifungal doses.

Lastly, a chemical analysis revealed the presence of caffeoyltartaric acid, 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin, gibberellin A7, A9 and A20 in BOP, which may be responsible for the biological properties observed. Thus, our data indicate that BOP is a promising source of anti-inflammatory and antifungal molecules that may be used as a functional food.