Sunday, March 17, 2019

Libyan Propolis Shows Potent Anti-Trypanosomal Activity (Sleeping Sickness, African Trypanosomiasis, Malaria, Tape Worm)


Isolation of a Novel Flavanonol and an Alkylresorcinol with Highly Potent Anti-Trypanosomal Activity from Libyan propolis

Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1041

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Twelve propolis samples from different parts of Libya were investigated for their phytochemical constituents. Ethanol extracts of the samples and some purified compounds were tested against Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and against two helminth species, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans, showing various degrees of activity. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the propolis samples, including a novel compound Taxifolin-3-acetyl-4’-methyl ether (4), a flavanonol derivative.

The crude extracts showed moderate activity against T. spiralis and C. elegans, while the purified compounds had low activity against P. falciparum. Anti-trypanosomal activity (EC50 = 0.7 µg/mL) was exhibited by a fraction containing a cardol identified as bilobol (10) and this fraction had no effect on Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF), even at 2.0 mg/mL, thus demonstrating excellent selectivity. A metabolomics study was used to explore the mechanism of action of the fraction and it revealed significant disturbances in trypanosomal phospholipid metabolism, especially the formation of choline phospholipids.

We conclude that a potent and highly selective new trypanocide may be present in the fraction.

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Brown Propolis Shows Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities


Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Standardized Polyphenol Mixture Extracted from Brown Propolis

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 12;20(5)

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Several lines of evidence demonstrate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of propolis, mostly ascribed to its polyphenol content. However, little is known regarding the bioavailability of propolis in acute and prolonged settings of oral administration.

In this study, we first determined the content of the main polyphenols in a brown propolis extract obtained using a patented extraction method (Multi Dinamic Extraction-M.E.D.) by RP-HPLC-UV-PDA-MSn analysis, followed by the bioavailability of galangin and chrysin, the most abundant polyphenols in the mixture (7.8% and 7.5% respectively), following acute (single bolus of 500 mg/kg containing about 3.65 mg of the polyphenol mixture) and prolonged (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg body for 30 days) oral administration in 30 male 8 weeks old C57BL/6 wild-type mice. In the acute setting, blood was taken at 30 s and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min following the oral bolus. In the prolonged setting, blood samples were obtained after 10, 20 or 30 days of administration.

At the end of treatment, expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxyde dismutase, SOD-1; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GSS) was evaluated in liver tissue. Following both acute and prolonged administration, neither galangin nor chrysin were detectable in the plasma of mice, whereas the glucuronide metabolite of galangine was detectable 5 min after acute administration.

At the end of the prolonged treatment SOD-1 was found to have increased significantly, unlike CAT and GSS. Overall, these data suggest that oral administration of whole brown propolis extract is followed by rapid absorption and metabolization of galangin followed by adaptations of the antioxidant first line defense system.

Thursday, March 14, 2019

Iranian Propolis May Help Treat Diabetes

Administration of Iranian Propolis attenuates oxidative stress and blood glucose in type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial

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Caspian J Intern Med. 2019 Winter;10(1):48-54

Background:

Hyperglycemia in diabetic people resulted in oxidative conditions. Propolis is the third most important component of bee products which has various functional properties such as anti-oxidant due to its components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the propolis effect on fructosamine level, the catalase activity, and the level of oxidized LDL changes in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods:

In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial study, 62 type 2 diabetic patients, attending Endocrine clinic in Velayat Hospital (Qazvin, Iran) in 2017, were randomly assigned to one of intervention and placebo (n=31) groups. Participants in intervention group took propolis capsule (500 mg) 3 times a day and those in placebo group took placebo capsules for 8-week. Fructosamine level, catalase activity and the level of oxidized-LDL were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.

Results:

At the end of the study, significant differences were seen within groups and in-between groups. In Propolis group compared to the placebo, fructosamine (p < 0.05), and the level of oxidized LDL (p < 0.05) decreased, and catalase activity (p < 0.05) improved. However, there were no significant changes in the placebo group at the end of trial.

Conclusion:

Eight weeks intake of propolis as a supplement in type II diabetic patients could improve anti-oxidant defense and decline production of hyperglycemia induced products such as fructosamine.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Korean Mint Honey Shows Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activity


Antimicrobial Activity of Agastache Honey and Characterization of Its Bioactive Compounds in Comparison With Important Commercial Honeys

Front Microbiol. 2019 Feb 25;10:263

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There is an urgent need for new effective antimicrobial agents since acquired resistance of bacteria to currently available agents is increasing.

The antimicrobial activity of Mono-floral Agastache honey produced from Australian grown Agastache rugosa was compared with the activity of commercially available honeys derived from Leptospermum species and with Jarrah honey for activity against clinical and non-clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Agastache honey was in the range of 6-25% (w/v) for all species examined. The MICs for Leptospermum honeys were generally similar to those of Agastache honey, but MICs were higher for Super manuka and Jarrah honeys and lower for Tea tree honey.

Staphylococci were more susceptible to all honeys than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of honey with catalase increased the bacterial growth at MIC of Tea tree honey (35%), Super Manuka (15%), Jarrah honeys (12%), and Agastache honey (10%), indicating variable contributions of hydrogen peroxide to antimicrobial activity. Manuka and Jelly bush honeys retained their antimicrobial activity in the presence of catalase, indicating the presence of other antimicrobial compounds in the honey. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and used to identify possible antimicrobial phenolic compounds in Agastache honey and flowers, and five commercial honeys. The chemical markers characteristic of Agastache honey and honeys of Leptospermum origin were phenyllactic acid and methyl syringate.

Overall, the bioactive compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in Agastache honey suggested a possible use for topical application and in wound care.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Propolis Dressing Boosts Wound Healing


In vitro and in vivo performance of a propolis-coated polyurethane wound dressing with high porosity and antibacterial efficacy

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2019 Mar 6;178:177-184

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Wound dressings with antimicrobial and wound healing accelerating properties are emerging as valuable options to prevent wound infection and improve the wound healing process.

In this study, high porous polyurethane (PU) foams were successfully prepared using salt leaching/solvent casting method and were coated with propolis as a well-known anti-bacterial agent. The wound dressings were subjected to detail analyzes using electron microscopy, reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties, contact angle measurement, ratio swelling, porosity measurement, and in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

The prepared wound dressings had high porosity (more than 80%) with homogeneous pore structure and sufficient interconnectivity. The increase of propolis concentration (10%-30%) caused tensile strength decrease (5.26 ± 0.40-2.99 ± 0.11 MPa), elongation at break increase (372 ± 12-434 ± 22%), contact angle decrease (114.52 ± 2.31° to 35.53 ± 1.65°), water absorption decreased (243 ± 15-207 ± 14%) and enhancement of the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

The propolis coated wound dressing exhibited significant enhancement of in vitro cellular compatibility and in vivo wound healing which had direct relative with coated propolis concentration.

Therefore, propolis-coated polyurethane wound dressing can be an appropriate candidate for more pre-clinical investigations.

Monday, March 11, 2019

Chilean Bee Pollen Shows Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities


Honeybee Pollen Load: Phenolic Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity

J Nat Prod. 2019 Mar 6

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Honeybee pollen loads result from the agglutination of pollen grains and salivary secretions of bees. The potential use of honeybee pollen as a food supplement greatly depends on its chemical composition, which varies depending on the botanical and geographical origin of the pollen grains.

This study aimed to characterize the botanical origin, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile. The introduced species Brassica rapa and Eschscholzia californica predominated in the bee pollen analyzed. The honeybee pollen extracts showed antioxidant and antibacterial properties, specifically against the pathogenic microorganism Streptococcus pyogenes.

Quercetin and myricetin were found in all samples in large concentrations. The separation of pollen loads from a multifloral sample demonstrated that E. californica pollen loads are responsible for antibacterial activity. This sample also showed a high concentration of quercetin (304.8 mg/100 g of bee pollen).

Based on the present results, honeybee pollen from the V Region of Chile has been found to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, it is proposed to use quercetin as a quality indicator for honeybee pollen from this region of Chile. These results should help establish better quality control criteria for Chilean honeybee pollen and its potential use as a functional ingredient.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Bee Pollen May Help Treat Cognitive Impairment (Memory, Dementia)


The Ameliorating Effects of Bee Pollen on Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice

Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(3):379-388

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Bee pollen consists of floral pollen mixed with bee secretions and nectar. It has been considered as a functional food and has different kinds of biologically active ingredients, such as flavonoids, polyphenols, phytosterols and minerals. However, its function in cognition has yet been investigated.

In the present study, we investigated the ameliorating effect of bee pollen against scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment through the passive avoidance test, the Y-maze test and the Morris water maze test. In addition, Western blotting was employed to verify the effects of bee pollen on memory-related signaling molecules in the hippocampus. Bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) obviously reversed scopolamine-caused cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test, ameliorated spontaneous alternation versus the scopolamine-treated group in the Y-maze test and prolonged swimming time in the target zone in the Morris water maze test. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the hippocampi, were increased in response to the treatment with bee pollen extract (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o.).

These results indicated that bee pollen ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic blockade through the enhancing conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF by tPA, probably, through the ERK-CREB pathway or Akt-GSK-3β signaling pathway and would be a useful agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

Saturday, March 09, 2019

Malaysian Propolis Boosts Antibiotics, May Help Treat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria


Cationic chitosan-propolis nanoparticles alter the zeta potential of S. epidermidis, inhibit biofilm formation by modulating gene expression and exhibit synergism with antibiotics

PLoS ONE

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Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents.

Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis.

The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60–70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA. At 100 μg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%.

The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP.

In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Friday, March 08, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

Gum arabic and red propolis protecteting colorectal preneoplastic lesions in a rat model of azoxymethane1

Acta Cir Bras. 2019 Feb 28;34(2):e201900207

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PURPOSE:

To evaluate red propolis, gum arabic and L-lysine activity on colorectal preneoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM).

METHODS:

The study featured 4 control groups (I-IV) and 4 experimental groups (V-VIII), totaling 48 rats. Once a week for 2 weeks, animals on control groups received saline, while animals in experimental groups received azoxymethane (15 mg/kg i.p.). The follow up along 16 weeks included daily oral gavage to administer water (I and V), L-lysine (150 mg/kg)(II and VI), própolis (100mg/5ml/kg)(III and VII), or gum arabic (5ml/kg)(IV and VIII). Was performed surgery on the animals in the end of this time in order to collect blood for biological assays (TBARS, GSH), followed by their sacrifice to tissue extract.

RESULTS:

Oxidative stress (TBARS) and the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in distal colon were lower using própolis (p < 0.01 for both parameters). Gum arabic reduced preneoplastic lesions (ACF ≤ 4 crypts) on distal colon and on the entire colon (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Red propolis reduced AOM-induced oxidative stress (TBARS) and total number of ACF in the distal colon. L-lysine neither protected against nor enhanced AOM-induced ACF. Gum arabic reduced the number of ACF.

Thursday, March 07, 2019

Bee Venom Boosts Effect of Anti-Cancer Drug


Antimutagenic and Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of Cisplatin and Honey Bee Venom on 4T1 Invasive Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line.

Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Jan 29;2019:7581318

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Introduction:

Honey bee venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as the inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat most of the cancers. Our aim in the present study was to determine antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma, exclusively and in combination with cisplatin.

Methods:

In this study, 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), at 37°C in humidified CO2 incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by the MTT assay. Also, HBV was screened‏ for its antimutagenic activity via the Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software version 19 and one-way ANOVA method considering p < 0.05 level of significance.

Results:

The results showed that 6 mg/ml of HBV, 20 μg/ml of cisplatin, and 6 mg/ml HBV with 10 μg/ml cisplatin could induce approximately 50% of 4T1 cell death. The concentration 7 mg/ml of HBV with of 62.76% inhibitory rate showed the highest antimutagenic activity in comparison with other treatment groups.

Conclusions:

The MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin could cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin also promoted by HBV. Ames test outcomes indicated that HBV could act as a significant mutagenic agent. The antimutagenic activity of HBV was increased considerably in the presence of S9 mix. Therefore, our findings have revealed that HBV can enhance the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin drug and its cancer-preventing effects.

Wednesday, March 06, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Prostate Cancer


Ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis decreases androgen receptor transcriptional activity in cultured LNCaP cells

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Mar 1. pii: S0960-0760(19)30084-6

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Antiandrogens have a peculiar place in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer by blocking the androgen receptor (AR). Unfortunately, aggressive tumors could rapidly develop into a castration resistant state. It is therefore essential to look for new molecules that are more effective, affecting not only the androgen signaling and with minimum undesirable effects.

Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botanical origin. Based on an ethnobotany screening, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) from Algeria on LNCaP cells. Results pointed out that EEP reduces the survival of LNCaP cells with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml, induces the apoptosis and blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.

Interestingly, EEP decreased the accumulation of AR suggesting some anti-androgen activity. Indeed, secreted amount of the androgen target protein PSA was decreased when LNCaP cells were incubated with EEP, starting after 4 h of treatment. This anti-androgen activity was also shown on the androgen target genes Fkbp5 and Sgk1.

Finally, the capacity of EEP to block AR functioning was demonstrated in transient transfections with human AR and the reporter gene ARE-tk-Luc. Propolis antagonizes the induction of the luciferase activity induced by the natural androgen DHT (10-8M) or the synthetic AR agonist R1881 (10-7M). Altogether, these results highlight the potential pharmacological effects of EEP in future treatments of prostate cancer.

Tuesday, March 05, 2019

Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese/Korean Date, Jujube) Honey Helps Decrease Blood Alcohol

Anti-alcoholic effects of honeys from different floral origins and their correlation with honey chemical compositions

Food Chem. 2019 Jul 15;286:608-61

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The effects of honeys from different floral origins on alcohol metabolism were compared, and the correlation between their chemical compositions and antialcholic effects was analyzed.

The results demonstrated that the five types of investigated honeys from different floral origins had different effects on alcohol metabolism, and the blood alcohol removal rate by these honeys ranged from 18.01% to 49.17%. Ziziphus jujuba honey exhibited the best blood alcohol removal effect, and meanwhile significantly enhanced the activity of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Chemical composition analysis also showed that honeys from different floral origins were considerably different in the contents of sugars, minerals, ascorbic acid and phenolics.

Ziziphus jujuba honey had the highest fructose/glucose ratio, ascorbic acid and phenolics contents, and higher contents of minerals, especially K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. This chemical composition might contribute to its better anti-alcoholic effect.

Monday, March 04, 2019

Propolis May Help Treat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (E.COLI, MRSA)


Cationic chitosan-propolis nanoparticles alter the zeta potential of S. epidermidis, inhibit biofilm formation by modulating gene expression and exhibit synergism with antibiotics

PLoS One. 2019 Feb 28;14(2):e0213079

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Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents. Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties.

Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis. The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60-70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA.

At 100 μg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%. The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP.

In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Sunday, March 03, 2019

Honey Bee Venom May Help Treat Arthritis

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Properties of Honey Bee Venom on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model in Rats

Toxicon. 2019 Feb 27. pii: S0041-0101(19)30057-1

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The aim of this study was to assess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of honey bee venom (HBV) on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Thirty-five rats were equally divided into a negative control (NC), a positive control (PC) and low, moderate and high doses (2, 4 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) of HBV treatment groups. Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) was given to the rats to form arthritis.

The treatment groups were treated with HBV for 3 consecutive weeks. After the treatment, plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) DNA damage levels were measured. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, TOS, OSI, DNA damage levels and MPO activities were significantly higher and TAS levels were lower in the PC group than the NC. After low-doses of HBV treatment IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β1, TOS, OSI, MPO and MNL-DNA damage levels significantly decreased according to the PC, while IFN-γ and TAS levels increased.

The differences in moderate and high-dose HBV treatment groups were not as significant as low HBV doses. Low-doses of HBV has been shown to treat RA with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, by preventing DNA damage. However, these effects have not been observed as strong at higher doses of HBV.

In summary, HBV may be an effective option to ameliorate RA, but the optimization of the therapeutic dose has a crucial role.

Saturday, March 02, 2019

Bee Propolis is a Wonder Food for Pregnant Diabetic Women

REPORTS HEALTHCARE

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The researchers from Usmanu Danfodiyo University in Nigeria and Universiti Sains Malaysia have come up with a study stating that propolis is a superfood for pregnant, diabetic women. It is potent enough not only to improve pregnancy outcomes in diabetic women but also placental oxidative stress. The respective research was published in Journal BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Diabetes mellitus is expected to affect more than 642 million people in the world, by 2040. Characterized by elevated blood sugar, diabetes causes a wide range of complications when left untreated. These may include kidney damage, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease etc.

Pregnancy, for sure, isn’t an easy experience. Especially, for mothers who have been diagnosed with diseases such as diabetes. This is because diabetes during pregnancy affects the development of the baby.

Previous studies have shown that diabetic mothers are more likely to give birth to infants with congenital malformations. Maternal factors including age, obesity, duration of the disease, diet, and medications add to the situation. A higher placental oxidative stress has also been observed among such women. This can potentially be resolved consuming natural antioxidants.

Bees produce propolis from the tree sap, their own discharges, and beeswax. Propolis has long served as a traditional remedy for wounds and cancer. It has also been used to improve (in rats)...