Thursday, September 17, 2020

Apitherapy Clinic Opened in Canada to Treat Lyme Disease, Arthritis, Immune Disorders

Niagara man builds plan for new clinic on the backs of bees

Gord Howard

His father and grandfather were beekeepers back in Paraguay. Unger, who came to Canada in 1974, keeps about five million of them in hives at BY’s Honey Farm in Niagara-on-the-Lake.

He takes a bit of honey every day like a daily vitamin, and is a firm believer that bees and their byproducts can help help the body heal both physically and mentally.

Later this month he will open what he believes will be Canada’s first apitherapy clinic, using bee venom to ease the pain of people suffering a wide variety of ailments including Lyme disease, arthritis and an immune system weakened by chemotherapy...

Friday, September 11, 2020

Amy Schumer Has Lyme Disease — Why Do People Think Bees Can Help?

What is bee sting therapy?

Bee sting therapy is a form of apitherapy, which is an alternative treatment using products from honeybees. Along with bee sting venom, apitherapy can include honey, propolis, bee pollen, beeswax, and royal jelly.

"This strategy has been used in alternative medicine for more than 5,000 years," one study explains. "It consists of either indirect application, by extracting bee venom (BV) with an electric stimulus followed by its injection into the body or directly via bee stings."

To apply bee sting therapy directly, bees are held with a tweezer and placed onto a particular part of the body. After it stings, the bee is removed, but the stinger remains in the body for a short period of time.

This treatment was recently featured in the Netflix docuseries (Un)Well, so many people around the world were exposed to the idea of apitherapy to help manage symptoms of Lyme disease. In the sixth episode of the show, the founder of Heal Hive, Brooke Geahan, calls bee venom an antibacterial, antiviral, anti-parasitic, and an anti-inflammatory.

She then explains one property of bee venom, called melittin, which supposedly breaks into the cell walls containing the Lyme disease bacteria (B. burgdorferi) and causes them to burst...

Thursday, September 03, 2020

Korean Propolis Can Prevent H. pylori-Induced Gastric Damage (Ulcers)

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of Korean propolis on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric damage in vitro

Journal of Microbiology (2020)

Helicobacter pylori, present in the stomach lining, is a Gramnegative bacterium that causes various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastritis and peptic ulcers. Propolis is a natural resinous substance collected from a variety of plants, and contains several natural bioactive substances. 

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of Korean propolis on H. pylori-induced damage in the human adenocarcinoma gastric cell line. The propolis used in this study was obtained from the Korea Beekeeping Association in South Korea. The expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins (ILs), such as IL-8, IL-12, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which was increased after H. pylori infection, significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon pretreatment with Korean propolis, because of the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kB pathway. 

The anti-oxidative activity of propolis was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate free radical assay. Korean propolis showed significant anti-oxidative effects via reactive oxygen species scavenging. In addition, pretreatment with Korean propolis upregulated the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes through Nrf2 signaling activation. These findings indicate that the use of Korean propolis, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, can be promising for the prevention of H. pylori-induced gastric damage.

Wednesday, September 02, 2020

Honey Bee Venom Rapidly Kills Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells

Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research study finds honeybee venom rapidly kills aggressive breast cancer cells

By Nicolas Perpitch

Venom from honeybees has been found to rapidly kill aggressive and hard-to-treat breast cancer cells, according to potentially groundbreaking new Australian research.

Key points:
  • The research was published in the journal Nature Precision Oncology
  • It found honeybee venom was effective in killing breast cancer cells
  • Researchers say the discovery is exciting but there is a long way to go
The study also found when the venom's main component was combined with existing chemotherapy drugs, it was extremely efficient at reducing tumour growth in mice...

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Bee Venom Therapy Used to Treat Psoriasis

3 Interesting Types of Bee Venom Therapy

Bee stings typically cause painful swelling to the infected area due to venom. The venom or apitoxin has numerous compounds, enzymes, and amino acids that can be used to treat several health conditions.

Medical uses for bee venom have been traced back to the Ancient Egyptians, in Europe and Asia. The Greek physician Hippocrates used bee stings to treat arthritis and other joint pain. Other healers have used the venom for other conditions such as skin rashes.

Today, the venom enzymes have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties as well as ease pain and help heal wounds. There had also been several therapies involving immune system conditions such as eczema, rheumatoid arthritis, and even neurological diseases like Alzheimer's. Here are three types of been sting venom therapy:

For Psoriasis

A small study with 50 volunteers participated in an experiment for bee venom as therapy for skin lesions. Half of the patients with psoriasis had weekly injections of apitoxin while the rest received a placebo. After 3 months of bee sting venom therapy, patients had significantly reduced levels of inflammatory blood markers and psoriasis plaques.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

New Study Confirms Honey is Better Than Antibiotics at Treating Colds and Coughs

By Divya Ramaswamy
  • Honey has been used for thousands of years as a home remedy for colds and coughs
  • However, its effectiveness in treating common cough or flu hadn’t been studied heavily
  • Now, experts at Oxford University’s Medical School and Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences found honey to be a more effective, safer, cheaper and readily available alternative to antibiotics
Honey can treat colds and coughs better than antibiotics or the usual over-the-counter medicines, a new study revealed.

Despite being a popular home remedy for coughs, the effectiveness of honey in treating these illnesses hasn’t been studied heavily. But, experts at Oxford University’s Medical School and Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences have now analyzed existing evidence to find out how upper respiratory infection symptoms like cough, sneezing, sore throat, and runny nose responded to treatment with honey.

They conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, while searching several databases. The experts then identified 14 studies involving more than 1,700 participants of varying ages. Analysis of these studies revealed that, compared to usual care, honey improved cough frequency and severity. A couple of studies pointed out treatment with honey offered faster results and the symptoms lasted one or two days less.

The good old home remedy was found to be a more effective, safer, cheaper and readily available alternative to antibiotics in relieving symptoms of colds and flu-like illnesses. However, no specific type of honey was touted to be the best...

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

Honey Massage is Safe, Has Detoxifying Effect

Safety and detoxification effect of honey massage

Volume 13 Issue 4 -2020
August 2020

Background: Medical massage has positive health effects during treatments or rehabilitation. Massage with honey said to be useful also for detoxification, for which the evidence is limited.

Aim/Purpose: To study the safety and detoxification effect of honey massage. Does honey massage remove trace elements (e.g. manganese) from the body, which is recommended for daily intake: is honey massage safe? Can honey massage remove harmful elements or compounds from the body? Participants Experiment 1: Two groups are built: One group from Manganese mine worker (3 persons), and none-mine worker (4 persons). All seven-person was evaluated separately. Experiment 2: We built three groups. The first group was consuming bio certified meat and vegetables, the second the bio vegetarian and the third group regular, each group 3 persons.

Research design: The subjects were massaged with honey. During the massage, the texture of the honey changes and absorbs certain substances from the skin (we name it M-honey for Massage-Honey). The composition of the original and M-honey was examined. Main outcome measures: In the first series, we examined M-honey’s for twenty-seven elements, including heavy metals. In the second series, each group’s M-honey was analysed for content of 502 complex chemicals.

Results: Concerning minerals, including manganese, the amount of effluent was so small that the honey massage did not endanger the homeostasis of the body. It was found that the M-honey was able to remove a small amount of Al Ba, Ni, Sr. One group contained the neurotoxic permethrin.

Conclusion: Honey massage has been shown to be safe and to has a detoxifying effect. However, other massage techniques have not been compared to honey massage, so we do not know whether the detoxifying effect is a specific feature of honey massage or is a common feature of several massage techniques.

Thursday, August 13, 2020

Could bee sting therapy possibly have a role in COVID-19 treatment?

Could bee sting therapy possibly have a role in COVID-19 treatment? Maybe. Maybe not. Should in-depth, scientific research be launched?

Author: Kathy Keatley Garvey


"A total of 5115 beekeepers were surveyed from February 23 to March 8, including 723 in Wuhan, the outbreak epicentre of Hubei. None of these beekeepers developed symptoms associated with COVID-19, and their health was totally normal. After that, we interviewed five apitherapists in Wuhan and followed 121 patients of their apitherapy clinic. These patients had received apitherapy from October 2019 to December 2019, and all the five bee apitherapists have the habit of self-apitherapy for their own health care (apitherapy means making use of bee venom from the honeybee's sting to treat or prevent certain diseases). Without any protective measures, two of the five apitherapists were exposed to suspected COVID-19 cases and others were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 cases, but none of them were infected eventually. None of the 121 patients were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and three of them had close contact with immediate family members who were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection cases.

Could bee sting therapy possibly have a role in COVID-19 treatment?Maybe. Maybe not. Should in-depth, scientific research be launched?

Yes, say a trio of researchers in an article published in

Lead author Wei Yang, an oncologist from China, and two associates related some interesting but anecdotal information about beekeepers in the COVID-19 epicenter, the Hubei province. The beekeepers surveyed didn't contract the COVID-19 virus. Neither did a group of surveyed patients receiving apitherapy.

"A total of 5115 beekeepers were surveyed from February 23 to March 8, including 723 in Wuhan, the outbreak epicentre of Hubei. None of these beekeepers developed symptoms associated with COVID-19, and their health was totally normal. After that, we interviewed five apitherapists in Wuhan and followed 121 patients of their apitherapy clinic. These patients had received apitherapy from October 2019 to December 2019, and all the five bee apitherapists have the habit of self-apitherapy for their own health care (apitherapy means making use of bee venom from the honeybee's sting to treat or prevent certain diseases). Without any protective measures, two of the five apitherapists were exposed to suspected COVID-19 cases and others were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 cases, but none of them were infected eventually. None of the 121 patients were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and three of them had close contact with immediate family members who were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection cases. It might be supposed that beekeepers are less likely to be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 because they live in less densely populated rural areas. But the five apitherapists and their patients are from densely populated areas in Wuhan. These people have one thing in common: they develop a tolerance to bee sting."

The co-authors pointed out that "It reminds us the story of the discovery of cowpox and the eventual victory of humans over this disease (Bennett and Baxby, 1996)."

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

9 Evidence-Based Manuka Honey Health Benefits (Colds, Flu, Wound Healing, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Bacterial, Ulcers, Athletic Performance)

While more research is needed to endorse its use in a clinical setting, early results using sterilised, laboratory-tested manuka honey in limited, small-scale studies have been promising. Scroll on for nine evidence-backed manuka honey...

Wednesday, August 05, 2020

Mexican University Researchers Recommend Propolis to Prevent COVID-19/Coronavirus Infection

UNAM scientists recommend taking propolis to prevent COVID – 19 – Very Interesting

Although there is still no medicine to treat COVID-19, UNAM recommends the use of propolis to keep the immune response in check.

The Faculty of Higher Studies Cuautitlán of the UNAM recommended the preventive use of this substance made by bees against COVID-19 and other viral diseases, such as seasonal influenza, thanks to the biological activity it has on viral, fungal and bacterial microorganisms.

Dr. Tonatiuh Cruz Sánchez, head of the Propolis Microbiological Bioprospecting Analysis Laboratory, explained that among the more than 300 chemical compounds observed over a decade of laboratory research, the phenols and flavonoids are responsible for their antimicrobial and probably antiviral action:

“Within the phenols is the phenethyl ester of caffeic acid (CAPE), which acts on polymerase, an enzyme capable of replicating an infectious microorganism, making it an excellent antibacterial. Also, flavonoids contain antioxidants such as pinocembrin and quercetin, which are attributed antiviral activity, “UNAM explained in a statement...

Tuesday, August 04, 2020

Slovenia Uses Sounds of Honey Bees as an Anti-Stress, Anti-Anxiety Relaxation Aid

How Slovenia uses the sound of bees to relax

By Martina Zoldos
30th July 2020

The country has a time-honoured tradition of using the sounds of bees buzzing to relax everyone from firefighters to school children, acting as an alleviant for anxiety and stress.

In our high-stress, modern society, there’s luckily no shortage of relaxation aids: bedtime story audio apps, phone-free offices, or ASMR, hypnotic YouTube videos of people whispering or crinkling wrapping paper into a microphone to help people drift to sleep.

But in Slovenia, there’s one relaxation technique that may actually shock some people, especially entomophobes: lying down in a room filled with cages of thousands of buzzing bees...

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

1st International Apitherapy Zoom Conference from 6 to 8 September 2020, Katowice, Poland

1st International Apitherapy Conference from 6 to 8 of September 2020 Katowice

From 6 to 8 of September, the 1st International Apitherapy Conference will be organized as ZOOM Conference under the auspices of the Medical University of Silesia, International Federation of Apitherapy, Romanian Apitherapy Society and German Apitherapy Society. Our goal is to present the latest developments of using bee products in medicine, pharmacy and cosmetology. The conference will be a forum for the exchange of experience in the field of apitherapy for representatives of scientific centers from Poland and abroad.

We would like to exchange scientific experience and present our achievements at the conference. Let’s meet on Zoom us.

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Australian, Malaysian, Brazilian Stingless Bee Honey Has Special Health Properties

Science sweetens native honey health claims

By University of Queensland

Science has validated Indigenous wisdom by identifying a rare, healthy sugar in native stingless bee honey that is not found in any other food.

University of Queensland organic chemist Associate Professor Mary Fletcher said Indigenous peoples had long known that native stingless bee honey had special health properties.

"We tested honey from two Australian native stingless bee species, two in Malaysia and one in Brazil and found that up to 85 per cent of their sugar is trehalulose, not maltose as previously thought," she said.

Dr. Fletcher said trehalulose was a rare sugar with a low glycaemic index (GI), and not found as a major component in any other foods.

"Traditionally it has been thought that stingless bee honey was good for diabetes and now we know why—having a lower GI means it takes longer for the sugar to be absorbed into the blood stream, so there is not a spike in glucose that you get from other sugars," Dr. Fletcher said...

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Mayan Propolis Shows Strong Anti-Inflammatory Properties

In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of Mayan propolis

Propolis has been used traditionally for different human diseases and even recently as dental biomaterials because of its antibacterial, antimycotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, a proper correlation between in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties has not been clearly established.

...Chemical analysis showed pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, and pinobanksin-3-O-propionate as the main components of propolis. Macrophage viability was high (106%) when propolis was used up to 50 µg/mL. ELISA studies showed a reduction in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) up to 145 pg/mL, 350 pg/mL, and 210pg/mL, respectively, while the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) were increased up to 833pg/mL and 446 pg/mL. Finally, edema was reduced on paw and ear mice by 9% and 22%, respectively.

Mayan propolis has strong in vitro anti-inflammatory properties without compromising macrophage
viability, resulting in a low-to-mild in vivo anti-inflammatory response.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Royal Jelly and Bee Pollen May Help Treat Menopausal Problems

Apitherapy for menopausal problems

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2020 Jul 16

Purpose: Apitherapy, a method from the field of complementary and alternative medicine, claims that all health problems including menopausal problems can be cured using bee products, especially honey, bee-collected pollen, propolis, and royal jelly. This study was to investigate the recommendations of protagonists of holistic apitherapy and compare these to the current evidence.

Methods: Since holistic apitherapy is only promoted in books and apitherapeutical congresses, we identified books on the topic in English, French, and German language via bookseller platforms and the JUSTfind system of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Germany, which comprises 337 databases from the EBSCO Discovery Service.

Results: Only 29.5% (n = 38) of the apitherapy books mentioned the topic of menopausal problems. Among these, there were 24 different recommendations. Royal jelly is the number one recommended therapy, followed by pollen, the combination of pollen and royal jelly, and propolis. All other recommendations are mentioned just once. The recommendation regarding royal jelly must be regarded as correct. Strictly speaking, evidence regarding bee-collected pollen is poor, since all studies on pollen did not investigate pollen directly, but pollen extracts and these pollens came from pollen that was anemophilous but not entomophilous.

Conclusion: Royal jelly and pollen could be interesting treatment options in cases of menopausal symptoms. In order to promote bee products for menopausal symptoms with a good conscience trials, comparing bee products against other options, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, C. racemosa extracts, and/or yoga should be initiated, since these methods have already proven their value.

Thursday, July 09, 2020

Greek Honey Has Antioxidant, Antiaging and Photoprotective Properties (Ageing, Aging, Seniors, Elderly, Skin Care, Health, Cosmetics)

Honey Extracts Exhibit Cytoprotective Properties Against UVB-Induced Photodamage in Human Experimental Skin Models

Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Jun 30;9(7):E566

In the present study, we aimed to examine the antioxidant, antiaging and photoprotective properties of Greek honey samples of various botanical and geographical origin. Ethyl-acetate extracts were used and the and the total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Honey extracts were then studied for their cytoprotective properties against UVB-induced photodamage using human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and/or reconstituted human skin tissue models. Specifically, the cytotoxicity, oxidative status, DNA damage and gene expression levels of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined.

Overall, the treatment of HaCaT cells with honey extracts resulted in lower levels of DNA strand breaks and attenuated the decrease in cell viability following UVB exposure. Additionally, honey extracts significantly decreased the total protein carbonyl content of the irradiated cells, however, they had no significant effect on their total antioxidant status. Finally, the extracts alleviated the UVB-induced up-regulation of MMPs-3, -7 and -9 in a model of reconstituted skin tissue. In conclusion, honey extracts exhibited significant photoprotective and antiaging properties under UVB exposure conditions and thus could be further exploited as promising agents for developing novel and naturally-based, antiaging cosmeceutical products.

Friday, June 26, 2020

Colorado Woman Treats Lyme Disease with Bee Venom Acupuncture

Woman with Lyme disease reveals she stings herself with BEES on her spine 30 times a week to treat her symptoms - after spending $1,000 a month on other options that didn't work

  • Brittany Elliott, 27, from Denver, Colorado, opened up about bee venom therapy (BVT), or apitherapy, earlier this week in a viral TikTok video 
  • The footage, which shows herself stinging herself with live bees that she orders online, has been viewed more than 1.1 million times
  • Brittany said she was bitten by a tick at the age of seven but didn't develop symptoms until she moved into a home with toxic black mold when she was 22 
  • Lyme disease can typically be treated by several weeks of oral antibiotics, though some patients still report symptoms, including fatigue and joint pain
  • It took her years to finally get diagnosed with Lyme disease, but the treatments she was paying nearly $1,000 a month for weren't helping 
  • Brittany, who now stings herself with 10 bees, three times a week, believes two to three years of the treatment will rid her of symptoms 

Monday, June 15, 2020

Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) Honey as Supplementation Medium

Use of Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) Honey Bee to Improve Sheep Oocyte Maturation Medium 

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jun 13

Sheep are important livestock and a source of milk, meat, and wool globally. The increasing demand for animal protein requires increased productivity in sheep. In vitro fertilization and maturation can improve sheep productivity.

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of honey bee addition as a supplementation medium on in vitro maturation improvement, gene expression of matured sheep oocytes, and determine the optimum concentration from honey bee for in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered female sheep. Grade A and B oocytes were cultured for 24 h in medium without honey bee (control, G1) or medium supplemented with 5% (G2), 10% (G3), or 20% (G4) honey bee. Oocyte maturation rate, glutathione concentration, and the expression of candidate genes (GDF-9, BAX, Cyclin B, C-MOS, IGF1) were determined in the matured oocytes. The maturation rate of sheep oocyte was better in the presence of 5% and 10% honey bee; the mean number of oocytes in metaphase II stage was higher than that in G1 and G4 groups. Glutathione concentration was highest in G2 (10.93 ± 0.57).

In general, gene expression levels were similar in G2 and G3, which were greater that in G1 and G4.

In conclusion, the optimal concentration of black seeds honey bee that can be added to the maturation medium is 5% to obtain the highest mean MII and glutathione concentration values, and to improve gene expression in in vitro matured sheep oocytes.

Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Does bee venom apitherapy prevent coronavirus/COVID-19 infection?

The Sangai Express

...When the Global number of confirmed COVID-19 case exceeded 2 million on the 15th April, 2020, Physicians of Johns Hopkins Corona Virus Resource Centre participated in the prevention and control of Corona Virus in China. The report of the discovery reflected of the discovery of Cowpox and the eventual victory of humans over the disease follows as in Hubei province, the epicentre of COVID-19 in China.

The local beekeepers were surveyed from February 23 to March 8, including 723 in Wuhan, the outbreak epicentre of Hubei. None of these beekeepers developed symptoms associated with COVID-19 and their health was totally normal. After that they interviewed patients in five apitherapy clinics. These patients had received apitherapy from October 2019 to December 2019 and all the five bee apitherapists have the habit of self-apitherapy for their health care (Apitherapy means making use of bee Venom from the honeybee’s sting to treat or prevent certain disease). Without any protective measures, two of the five apitherapists were exposed to suspected COVID-19 cases and others were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 case, but none of them were infected eventually...

Monday, June 08, 2020

Royal Jelly May Help Treat Depression

Chronic Royal Jelly Administration Induced Antidepressant-Like Effects Through Increased Protein Expression of sirtuin1 and OXPHOS in the Amygdala of Mice

Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2020 Apr 24

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychological disorder worldwide. However, one-third of patients with MDD are resistant to the present antidepressant medicine which regulates monoamine contents in the brain. Thus, another drug target is strongly required. Much evidence strongly suggests that sirtuin1, which is the key factor to regulate mitochondrial activity, may be implicated in MDD.

Objective: Since it is suggested that royal jelly (RJ) ameliorated depressive-like behavior and affected mitochondrial activity in mice, we hypothesized RJ could be an alternative medicine against MDD which acts via sirtuin1 signaling to improve mitochondrial activity.

Methods: In the present study, we applied a mouse model of MDD to investigate the effect of RJ on the depressive-like behavior and the sirtuin1 signaling on mitochondrial activity.

Results: Our results indicated that either the oral administration of RJ for 12 days or single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection decreased the duration of immobility in the tail suspension test, which suggested that RJ had an antidepressant-like effect. Moreover, sirtuin1 protein expression increased in mice following RJ treatment in the amygdala region, but not in the other brain regions. Similarly, the expressions of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) related proteins increased in the amygdala regions, but not in the hippocampal regions.

Conclusion: The increase of sirtuin1 and OXPHOS protein expression may at least in part contribute to the antidepressant-like effect of the RJ pathway, and RJ may have the potential to be a novel antidepressant drug.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Propolis Component May Help Block COVID-19/Coronavirus

Ashwagandha takes the lead to be the mother nature’s COVID-19 warrior: Study

They discovered that Withanone (Wi-N), a natural compound derived from Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), an active ingredient of New Zealand propolis, have the potential to interact with and block the activity of Mpro. The team described that they have also searched for the capability to these bioactives to modulate the protein on the surface of human cells, to which the SARS-CoV-2 binds and allows its entry into our cell - the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and selected Withanone. The study is currently under review and expected to be published in a near future.

The team said that their findings may not only connect to save time and cost required for screening for anti-COVID-19 drugs, but may also offer some preventive and therapeutic value for the management of fatal COVID-19 pandemic, and hence warrant prioritized validation in the laboratory and clinical tests. They added that the drug development may take a while and in the current scenario, these natural resources (Ashwagandha and Propolis) may offer some preventive or even therapeutic value. However, although they are easily available and affordable, one has to be cautious about the content of bioactive ingredients. CAPE, while is a major component of propolis, its amount and stability are critical factors that could be managed by generating its complex with cyclodextrins. This has been earlier described by the DAILAB team. Withanone, on the other hand, varies with geography/parts/size of the Ashwagandha plant. So, in order to acquire or appreciate particular effects, we must use the right and quality-controlled resource/extracts.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Happy World Bee Day

Tualang Honey Supplementation as Cognitive Enhancer in Patients With Schizophrenia

Heliyon. 2020 May 12;6(5):e03948

Introduction: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness with clusters of symptoms, including cognitive impairment. This study aimed to explore the effect of Tualang Honey (TH) on cognitive domains, especially as it pertained to the verbal memory of schizophrenia patients.

Method: This was a cross-sectional study involved 80 individuals, diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Malay Version Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT) was used. Data were analysed using SPSS 20.0 software. Intention to treat analysis was applied.

Result: A comparison of the total learning score at eight weeks between the two groups based on time effect and time-treatment interaction favoured TH group.

Conclusion: This study concludes that by supplementing schizophrenia patients with 8-week of TH did improve total learning performance across domains in the immediate memory among patients with schizophrenia.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Propolis Effective Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1, Cold Sore)

[Comparison of Antiviral Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Propolis with Acyclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1].

Mikrobiyol Bul. 2020 Jan;54(1):79-94

While acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue, is widely used for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), emergence of drug-resistant viruses due to frequent usage of this class of medicines, and their toxic side effects require exploring novel active molecules. Despite the studies on developing synthetic molecules in medical sciences and pharmacology, herbs as a natural source of biologically-active compounds remain popular.

In this in vitro study, olive leaf extract (OLE) and propolis alone or in combination with acyclovir were investigated for their antiviral efficacy in HSV-1.Toxic doses of OLE, propolis, and dimethyl sulfoxide, propolis diluent, for Hep-2 (ATCC, CCL-23) cells were determined by conventional cell culture. Using "endpoint" method, the viral dose infecting half of the cell culture (TCID50) was calculated, and viral quantity was determined with Spearman-Karber method. Antiviral effects of OLE and propolis on HSV-1 were investigated by conventional cell culture and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). Combinations of the two extracts with one another and with acyclovir were evaluated by RTCA. Active substances prepared at three different dilutions were added to tubes with HSV-1 of logTCID50: 11.5 in descending order starting from the highest non-toxic concentration, and they were left at room temperature for two different durations (one hour and three hours).

The aliquots taken from the tubes were cultured in plates containing Hep-2 cells and evaluated after 72 hours. Combinations of extracts and acyclovir at concentrations at least four times lower than the lowest concentration showing antiviral efficacy against HSV-1 were cultured with Hep-2 cells in the e-plates of the xCELLigence RTCA device, measurements were obtained at 30 minute intervals, and data were recorded in real time. In the test with two different durations and at different concentrations of OLE and propolis, antiviral efficacy was observed both with one-hour and three-hour incubation at a concentration of 10 μg/ ml for propolis and 1.2 mg/ml for OLE with RTCA.

The duration and concentration of the greatest decrease in viral quantity were in the first one hour and 10 μg/ml for propolis, and in the first one hour and 1.2 mg/ ml for OLE. Combination of propolis and OLE with acyclovir caused no cytopathic effects, and the combination of extracts led to delayed cytopathic effect.

According to these results, propolis and OLE, alone and in combinations with acyclovir, have antiviral efficacy against HSV-1. These agents may reduce the dose and side effects of acyclovir in case of co-administration since they exert their effects through a different mechanism than acyclovir,possibly through direct virucidal activity, inhibition of virus internalization or viral inhibition in early stages of replication (inhibition of adsorption/binding of viral particles to the cell).

These extracts that do not require conversion to active form have the potential to reduce infectivity in oral lesions, prevent spread, and be used in the topical treatment of acyclovir-resistant HSV infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, in vivo studies should be conducted to determine their medicinal properties and potential toxicities. These results should be supported by further comprehensive studies and the efficacy against other viruses should also be investigated.

Wednesday, May 06, 2020

Does Bee Venom Apitherapy Prevent COVID-19/Coronavirus Infection?

Bee venom and SARS-CoV-2


According to data from Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center, the global number of confirmed COVID-19 case exceeded 2.0 million on the 15th of April. I am a physician, and I participated the prevention and control of coronavirus in China.

There is one discovery we would like to report here. It reminds us the story of the discovery of cowpox and the eventual victory of humans over this disease (Bennett and Baxby, 1996). In Hubei province, the epicentre of COVID-19 in China, the local beekeepers association conducted a survey of beekeepers (Fig. 1). A total of 5115 beekeepers were surveyed from February 23 to March 8, including 723 in Wuhan, the outbreak epicentre of Hubei. None of these beekeepers developed symptoms associated with COVID-19, and their health was totally normal. After that, we interviewed five apitherapists in Wuhan and followed 121 patients of their apitherapy clinic. These patients had received apitherapy from October 2019 to December 2019, and all the five bee apitherapists have the habit of self-apitherapy for their own health care (apitherapy means making use of bee venom from the honeybee's sting to treat or prevent certain diseases). Without any protective measures, two of the five apitherapists were exposed to suspected COVID-19 cases and others were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 cases, but none of them were infected eventually. None of the 121 patients were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and three of them had close contact with immediate family members who were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection cases. It might be supposed that beekeepers are less likely to be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 because they live in less densely populated rural areas. But the five apitherapists and their patients are from densely populated areas in Wuhan. These people have one thing in common: they develop a tolerance to bee sting.

Bee sting can cause allergic reactions (Park and Lee, 2016), and it can even lead to death due to the excessive stress response of the immune system (Vazquez-Revuelta and Madrigal-Burgaleta, 2018). Bee venom can affect the body's immune system (Cherniack and Govorushko, 2018) and enhance the differentiation of human regulatory T cells (Caramalho et al., 2015), which play an important role in control of SARS-CoV infection (Chen et al., 2010). Does the stimulation of the immune system caused by bee venom reduce susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2? To test this, animal experiments would be needed. Monkeys might be suitable for this study. Monkeys could be divided into two experimental groups with the same breed and age. One group could be made tolerant to bee venom after a period of daily bee stings, while the other group receives no intervention. They could then be raised in the same environment contaminated by SARS-CoV-2, and multiple tests performed to see if they were infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Our purpose in writing this letter is to ask scholars with appropriate research conditions to test this assumption. In the absence of vaccine of SARS-CoV-2, if this method works, then it could offer one hope towards victory over COVID-19.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Electrospun Manuka Honey Nanofibrous Wound Dressings

Manuka honey incorporated cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats: Fabrication and in vitro evaluation as a potential wound dressing

Wound dressings are the primary barrier between the wound surface and the outer environment. Here we report the fabrication of cellulose acetate (CA)–Manuka honey (MH) composite nanofibrous mats as a biocompatible and antimicrobial wound dressing. CA mats with different quantities of MH were developed by electrospinning. The ATR-FTIR spectra confirm the inclusion of MH in the composite CA-MH nanofibrous mats. The fibers were continuous and bead-free with acceptable mechanical properties. The fiber diameter increased with an increase in MH content. Inclusion of MH in the electrospun composite CA-MH nanofibrous mats shows high efficacy to prevent bacterial growth on the wound surface.

The MH loaded CA nanofiber mats showed good antioxidant abilities, while the ability to free radicalize the DPPH was dependent upon the factors of MH content in the fiber and the time of immersion in the DPPH solution. Besides, the nanofibrous mat's high porosity (85–90%) and WVTR values of 2600 to 1950 g/m2/day, suitable for wound breathability and the mats show high cytocompatibility to NIH 3T3 cell line in in vitro testing, proving to be effective for promoting wound healing...

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Propolis Used to Treat Colds, Rheumatism, Diabetes, Stomach Pain

Searching for bioactive compounds from Vietnamese propolis

Propolis is biologically a mixture of sap with secretions from the bee's salivary glands, which is used to seal the hive, help preserve honey, protect the development of larvae, eggs and itself from the attack of pathogens.

Among bees, Italian bees (Apis melifera, Apini tones) and Du wasps (also known as stingless bees) (Meliponini tones) give much propolis and have drawn interest from researchers. Unlike Italian bee Apis melifera, the Du is rich in number of species, with more than 500 species in the world, distributed in many different geographical areas. In Vietnam, according to previous studies, there are more than 10 different species of the Du.

Propolis has long been used in the treatment of colds, rheumatism, diabetes, stomach pain, and has many biological activities that have been discovered such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-HIV. Due to many practical applications such as medicine products and functional foods, propolis has attracted a lot of research on chemical composition and biological activity.

Currently, scientists have isolated more than 500 compounds in honey propolis as well as Du propolis in the world. The chemical composition of propolis includes phenolic acid compounds, phenolic esters, flavonoids, triterpenes, stilbenes and prenyl flavanoids. However, there has not been much research on the chemical and biological activity of propolis in Vietnam...

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Manuka Honey in High Demand Due to the Coronavirus - COVID-19

Since the start of the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus (Also known as the Corona Virus), Manuka Honey has seen sales increase at around 100%. This rather significant spike in its demand has undoubtedly due to its “Superfood” status as seen by its many users globally. It is easy to see why this is the case when we delve deeper into its renowned properties.

Manuka Honey is not only famous for its taste, but also for its varied health benefits and importantly its bacteria killing properties. This particular honey is very unique in that it contains a compound called Methlyglyoxal (MGO). This is part of the chemical make up of three different elements that can determine the quality and potency of the product...

Friday, March 06, 2020

People Are Stinging Themselves With Bees at Home to Treat Lyme Disease

...The protocol is known as bee venom therapy (BVT), and among those afflicted with chronic Lyme, it’s gaining a lot of adherents. They call themselves “stingers.”

“I meet online two or three new people every week who I haven't found before, who are doing BVT,” she said. “Most people, if not everyone, say that they're improving.”

The claim is difficult to measure because chronic Lyme is not recognized by the medical establishment as existing at all. In other words, one can’t be recovering from a disease that most doctors simply won’t diagnose.

“The chronic Lyme label seems to be a convenient way to attribute very nonspecific symptoms that may have nothing to do with Lyme disease,” said Dr. Asim Ahmed, an infectious diseases expert at the Boston Children’s Hospital. “And it's just medically unaccepted as a diagnosis.”

The stingers of course don’t buy that, and are in a sense willing to prove it by stabbing themselves with pulsating venom sacs multiple times a week, sometimes for years...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Medical Grade Honey Boosts Healing of Pediatric Abdominal Wounds

Medical grade honey for the treatment of paediatric abdominal wounds: a case series

J Wound Care. 2020 Feb 2;29(2):94-99


Children are at high risk of injuries and wounds. The application of medical grade honey is a promising approach to improving the healing of wounds of various origin and severity. However, the use of medical grade honey in young paediatric patients remains limited. The aim of this study is to show the safety, efficacy and usefulness of medical grade honey in abdominal wounds, of different causes, in paediatric patients.


This was a prospective, observational case series evaluating five young infants with abdominal wounds at the General Hospital in Thessaloniki. All wounds were treated in the same manner with daily medical grade honey applied to the wound area and closely monitored.


All treated wounds rapidly presented granulation tissue formation and underwent re-epithelialisation. Peripheral oedema and inflammation decreased upon initial application. Necrotic tissue was effectively debrided when present. Slough was removed and no signs of infection were detected, irrespective of initial wound presentations. Scar formation was minimal and the full range of motion was preserved in all cases.


Based on this case study, medical grade honey is safe and effective in treating different abdominal wounds, including infected or dehisced wounds as well as burns. The easy application and broad applicability make medical grade honey recommendable as a first-line treatment in paediatric patients.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Potential Benefits of Propolis for Humans

Green Matters

According to WebMD, some people believe that propolis might be inflammatory, that it can help heal skin, and that it can fight bacteria, viruses, and fungi. As the NCBI review added, propolis (and propolis-derived products) are believed by some to have "antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antimycotic, antifungal, antiulcer, anticancer, and immunomodulatory" properties...

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Honey Reduces Postoperative Pain after Tonsillectomy (Tonsillitis)

The effect of adjuvant oral application of honey in the management of postoperative pain after tonsillectomy in adults: A pilot study.

PLoS One. 2020 Feb 10;15(2):e0228481


To analyze the effect of adjuvant oral application of honey for treating postoperative pain after tonsillectomy.


Single centre prospective cohort study.


Two cohorts of patients after tonsillectomy.


56 patients treated with honey 8 times per day (honey group), 18 patients treated without honey (control group); baseline analgesia were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) or coxibs; opioids were used as pro re nata (PRN) medication; mean age 34.4 ± 13.4 years; 36% women.


On first to fifth postoperative day, patients rated their pain using the validated questionnaire of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0-10) for determination of patient's pain. QUIPS allows standardized assessment of patients' characteristics andpain-associated patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The influence of preoperative and postoperative parameters on patients' postoperative pain were estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis.


Average pain in activity in the control group was greater than 4 (NRS 4.4 ± 2.4) during the first five postoperative days, with a renewed increase in pain intensity on the fifth day (4.3 ± 2.5). In the honey group, the pain in activity decreased without any further pain increase and was only higher than 4 on the first three postoperative days (4.3 ± 2.1, all p > 0.05). However; neither minimal nor maximal pain were significantly different between both groups on the first postoperative day (p = 0.217, p = 0.980). Over the five postoperative days, the minimal and maximal pain in the honey group decreased continuously and faster than in the control group. With regard to pain-related impairments on the first day, the honey group reported less pain-related sleep disturbance (p = 0.026), as well as significantly fewer episodes of postoperative oral bleeding (p = 0.028) than the control group. Patients without honey consumption had on the first and fifth postoperative day a higher risk of increased minimal pain (OR = -2.424, CI = -4.075 --0.385). Gender was an independent factor for compliance of honey consumption on the second postoperative day (p = 0.037). Men had a lower probability for compliance of honey consumption (OR = -0.288, CI = -2.863 --0.090).


There was a trend of reduced postoperative pain after oral honey application. Honey also seems to reduce pain-related impairments. The need for additional opioids on the first day could be reduced. A larger controlled trial is now needed to varify the effect of honey on pain after tonsillectomy.

Friday, February 07, 2020

Royal Jelly may Help Treat Alzheimer's Disease (Memory, Aging, Cognition, Cognitive, Neurodegenerative Diseases)

Oral treatment with royal jelly improves memory and presents neuroprotective effects on icv-STZ rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in cognitive function. Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ) has been used as an experimental model of Sporadic AD (SAD) in rodents and represents a promising tool for etiopathogenic analysis and evaluation of new therapeutic proposals for AD.

The icv-STZ model shows many aspects of SAD abnormalities, resulting in decreased brain glucose and energy metabolism, cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and amyloid angiopathy. Royal jelly (RJ), a substance produced by worker honeybees of the Apis mellifera species, has been popularly used for more than 30 years in areas related to health eating and natural medicine.

Researches indicate that RJ has a several pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective and improvement of cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral treatment with royal jelly during 2 weeks in Wistar rats submitted to icv-STZ on a working memory and neuroprotection, as evaluated by neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress.

In this study, icv-STZ injection induced deleterious effects in the hippocampus, associated with cognitive impairments, and developed marked neurodegeneration, besides the reduction of neurogenesis and increased oxidative stress.

On the other hand, RJ long-term oral administration induced beneficial effects in animals injured by icv-STZ injection, increasing retention time for working spatial memory, reducing neurodegeneration and oxidative stress level and increasing the proliferation of new neurons in the hippocampus. Thus, RJ promotes beneficial effects on cognitive functions and exhibits a neuroprotective action in the STZ experimental model of SAD

Wednesday, February 05, 2020

Honey Equal to Aspirin in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), But Without Side Effects (Heart Disease, Mortality, Antiplatelet)

Antiplatelet Effectivity between Aspirin with Honey on Cardiovascular Disease Based on Bleeding Time Taken on Mice

Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Oct 14;7(20):3416-3420


The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its mortality continues to increase. Various studies have shown aspirin can reduce CVD mortality but has adverse side effects. Research on a comparison between aspirin and honey has not been done, but both have antiplatelet effects.


This study is aimed to prove the antiplatelet effects on honey and compare the antiplatelet effects of aspirin with honey based on the bleeding time in mice.


This study is a true experimental design with a post-test only control group using 32 male mice, Double Ditsch Webster, ± 3 months old, the weight of 20-30 g, divided into 4 groups. Consisting of a negative control group (placebo), aspirin and honey. The suspension has given orally for 12 days using the probe. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics Faculty of Medicine, the University of North Sumatra in September until December 2015. The data collected was bleeding time in mice. Data analysed by Shapiro Wilk test, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney.


The mean bleeding time was a placebo (102.88 seconds), aspirin (369.38 seconds) and honey (304.63 seconds). Mann Whitney test showed significant results in the aspirin and honey groups against the control group (placebo) with p = 0.001. There were no significant differences in the aspirin group against honey (p = 0.172). Honey has an antiplatelet effect in mice. The mean bleeding time in mice given honey is longer or closer to the mean bleeding time in the aspirin group.


The results could be used as a basis for further research to determine its use in humans with cardiovascular disease.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Is Honey Effective as a Natural Medicine for Cardiovascular Diseases in Humans?

Honey and Its Phenolic Compounds as an Effective Natural Medicine for Cardiovascular Diseases in Humans?

Nutrients. 2020 Jan 21;12(2). pii: E283

Honey is a sweet, viscous syrup produced by the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It is probably the first natural sweetener ever discovered, and is currently used as a nutritious food supplement and medicinal agent. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize and update the current knowledge regarding the role of honey in CVDs based on various experimental models. It also describes the role of its phenolic compounds in treating CVDs. Many such phenolic and flavonoid compounds, including quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, and caffeic acid, have antioxidant and anti-platelet potential, and hence may ameliorate cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through various mechanisms, such as by decreasing oxidative stress and inhibiting blood platelet activation. However, as the phenolic content of a particular type of honey is not always known, it can be difficult to determine whether any observed effects on the human cardiovascular system may be associated with the consumption of honey or its constituents. Therefore, further experiments in this area are needed.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Successful Treatment of Lymphocytic Colitis With a Honey Lavage

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

22 January 2020

To the Editors,

Microscopic colitis is a frequent cause of nonbloody chronic watery diarrhea. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based upon mucosal biopsy of the colon with specific histologic features in the mucosa. There are 2 subtypes, collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, based on a subepithelial collagen band and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, respectively. Although its exact etiology is unknown, the disorder is associated with medication such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors and autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. The standard therapy for microscopic colitis consists of glucocorticosteroids, antidiarrheals, and cholestyramine. Although these treatments often cause cessation of symptoms, relapses are seen...

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Stingless Bee (Kelulut) Honey Reduces Anxiety, Improves Memory

Stingless bee honey reduces anxiety and improves memory of the metabolic disease-induced rats

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jan 16


Evidence suggested the involvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through oxidative stress. Consumption of antioxidant compounds was found to be beneficial on brain-health by reducing brain oxidative stress level and improve cognitive performance in animal. Stingless bee honey or locally known as Kelulut honey (KH) exert high phenolic content and widely used as food supplement.


In this study, we aim investigate the effects of KH on the brain of MetS-induced rats.


Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; 8 weeks (C8) and 16 weeks control groups (C16), groups that received high carbohydrate high fructose (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks (MS8) and 16 weeks (MS16), and a group that received HCHF for 16 weeks with KH supplemented for the last 35 days (KH).


Serum fasting blood glucose decreased in the KH group compared to MS16 group. HDL levels were significantly decreased in MetS groups compared to control groups. Open field experiments showed KH group exhibits less anxious behavior compared to the MetS group. Probe trial of Morris water maze demonstrated significant memory retention of KH group compared to MS16 group. Nissl staining showed significant decrease in pyramidal hippocampal cell in the MS16 compared to KH group.


KH has the ability to normalise blood glucose and reduce serum triglyceride and LDL levels in MetS rats, while behavior studies complement its effect on anxiety and memory. This shows a promising role of KH in attenuating neurodegenerative diseases through the antioxidant activity of its polyphenolic content.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Manuka Honey May Help Treat Colorectal Cancer

The Influence of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Anticancer Activity of Manuka Honey

Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Jan 10;9(1)

Manuka honey (MH) is a natural food with many beneficial properties to human health, thanks to its high variety of bioactive compounds; however, little is known about its bioaccessibility.

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the polyphenol compounds, the antioxidant capacity and the anticancer activity of MH subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion in human HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

Raw MH and digested MH (DMH) were assessed for total polyphenols and flavonoids by spectrophotometric and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using different methods. Cell viability, intracellular ROS production, apoptosis, cell cycle and colony formation capacity were tested after treatment with MH or DMH.

Results showed that total polyphenols, total flavonoids and TAC were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced after in vitro digestion. In addition, MH and DMH at 8, 16 and 24 mg/mL had similar effects in inducing intracellular ROS production and in inhibiting the colon formation ability; MH induced a more marked apoptosis compared to DMH, while cell cycle was blocked in S phase by MH and in Sub G1 phase by DMH.

Our results increase knowledge of the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the biological effect of honey against colorectal cancer.

Thursday, January 09, 2020

Honey Protects Against Toxic Agents

Antidotal or protective effects of honey and one of its major polyphenols, chrysin, against natural and chemical toxicities

Acta Biomed. 2019 Dec 23;90(4):533-550


Honey and its polyphenolic compounds are of main natural antioxidants that have been used in traditional medicine. The aim of this review was to identify the protective effects of honey and chrysin (a polyphenol available in honey) against the chemical and natural toxic agents.


The scientific databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched to identify studies on the antidotal effects of honey and chrysin against toxic agents.


This study found that honey had protective activity against toxic agents-induced organ damages by modulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis pathways. However, clinical trial studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of honey and chrysin as antidote agents in human intoxication.


Honey and chrysin may be effective against toxic agents. (

Thursday, January 02, 2020

Bee Pollen Shows Gut-Protecting Potential

Lipidomics Provides Novel Insights into Understanding the Bee Pollen Lipids Transepithelial Transport and Metabolism in Human Intestinal Cells

J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Dec 26

Bee pollen (BP) shows profound gut-protecting potentials. BP lipids (BPLs) mainly composed by phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids might be one of the important contributors, while how BPL exerts gut-protecting effects and is transported through intestinal cell monolayers need to be investigated.

Here, we exploited a strategy that combines an UPLC-Q-exactive orbitrap/MS-based lipidomics approach with a human intestinal cell (Caco-2) monolayer transport model, to determine the transepithelial transportation of BPL from Camellia sinensis L. (BPL-Cs), in pathological conditions.

The results showed that BPL-Cs protected Caco-2 cells against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by improving cell viability, maintaining membrane integrity, increasing tight junctions (ZO-1 and Claudin-1), and eliciting the expressions of antioxidative-related genes (NQO1, Nrf2, Txnrd1, and GSTA1). Lipidomics analysis revealed that DSS suppressed the transport and uptake of most of BPL-Cs including glycerophospholipids, sphingomyelins, and glycosylsphingolipids. Pretreatment with BPL-Cs significantly regulated glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolisms, potentially involved in building permeability barriers and alleviating intestinal oxidative stress.

Finally, eight classes of lipids were identified as the potential biomarkers for evaluating DSS-induced Caco-2 cell dysfunctions and BPL-intervened modulation.

These findings shed light on the development of BPL as gastrointestinal protective food supplements in the future.