Tuesday, July 25, 2023

Honey Has Protective Effect in Cerebrovascular Diseases

Apitherapy in Post-Ischemic Brain Neurodegeneration of Alzheimer’s Disease Proteinopathy: Focus on Honey and Its Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids

Molecules 2023, 28(15), 5624

Neurodegeneration of the brain after ischemia is a major cause of severe, long-term disability, dementia, and mortality, which is a global problem. These phenomena are attributed to excitotoxicity, changes in the blood–brain barrier, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, vasoconstriction, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and ultimately neuronal death. In addition, genetic factors such as post-ischemic changes in genetic programming in the expression of amyloid protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1 and -2, and tau protein play an important role in the irreversible progression of post-ischemic neurodegeneration. Since current treatment is aimed at preventing symptoms such as dementia and disability, the search for causative therapy that would be helpful in preventing and treating post-ischemic neurodegeneration of Alzheimer’s disease proteinopathy is ongoing. Numerous studies have shown that the high contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids in honey have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-amyloid, anti-tau protein, anticholinesterase, serotonergic, and AMPAK activities, influencing signal transmission and neuroprotective effects. Notably, in many preclinical studies, flavonoids and phenolic acids, the main components of honey, were also effective when administered after ischemia, suggesting their possible use in promoting recovery in stroke patients. This review provides new insight into honey’s potential to prevent brain ischemia as well as to ameliorate damage in advanced post-ischemic brain neurodegeneration.

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