Identification of Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Honey Methanol and Ethyl Acetate Extracts and their Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities
[Editor's Note: The following presentation were offered at the 6th German Apitherapy and Apipuncture Congress held in Passau from March 27th to April 1st, 2008]
By Mustafa Kassim Abdulazez and Kamaruddin Mohd.Yusoff, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Abstract: Malaysian Honey has been used for the treatment of antimicrobial, ulcer and wound healing. Honey also has been shown to stimulate the immune system, the rapid production of granulation tissue, increase fibroblasts production, and it also contains a high antioxidant capacity.
This study was designed to identify polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) by HPLC and LC-MS. Their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in animal model were investigated.
Acute inflammations were induced in rat paw edema by carrageenin. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts, we examined its effect on cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by measurement of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide NO in paws exudates tissues, volume of inflammation was monitored by plethysmometer and pain also was measured by infrared analgesia meter.
Our data indicated that active polyphenolic antioxidant compounds such as chrysin, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid are presented in both extracts. These compounds have been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory and antinciceptive activities and some of them have shown down-regulation of NF-kB as well as inhibitor of COX-2 and iNOS.
HME and HEAE were found to significantly inhibit the productions of (NO), (PGE2) and deceased the volume of exudates and monitoring the pain and all results were significant and we had shown that the HME was more potent than HEAE because high concentration of these compounds and some water soluble compounds have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of extracts may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kB.
Honey and its HME and HEAE have potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and are therefore potentially useful for all inflammatory conditions.