Changes in the Chemical Nature of Apis Mellifera and Apis Florea Honeys Due to Heating and Storage
National Centre for Research, P.O. Box 6096, Khartoum-Sudan
The chemical composition of honey samples from Sudan produced by the domestic Apis mellifera and the introduced Apis florea honeybees were assessed using AOAC methods. The comparison between the two honey types has shown comparable results as well as significant variations. The mean values for both species honeys were, respectively; moisture (18.5-13.7%); glucose (35.2-36.3%); fructose (33.7-33.8%); sucrose (7.3-2.9%); invert sugar (68.9-70.4%); ash (0.26-1.1%); acidity (51.8-98.4meq/kg); pH (3.6-4.4) and HMF (3.78-3.17 mg/100g). Significant changes in glucose, fructose, sucrose, and acidity were occurred after six months storage of the honey samples. In another experiment, honeys subjected to heating regimes and storage periods have shown increment in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) contents. The amount of HMF reached 16.30 1.1 for Apis mellifera and 7.41 4.4 mg/100g for Apis florea at 80 ◦C exceeding the level set by Codex Alimintarius for honey standards. However, honey produced by Apis florea showed some heat tolerance to HMF formation compared to Apis mellifera honey.