Saturday, July 06, 2013

Bee Venom Component a Good ‘Chauffeur’ for Cell-Based Vaccines

Bee Venom Phospholipase A2, a Good "Chauffeur" for Delivering Tumor Antigen to the MHC I and MHC II Peptide-Loading Compartments of the Dendritic Cells: The Case of NY-ESO-1
PLoS One, 2013 Jun 18;8(6):e67645
Bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) is a small, 15kDa enzyme which hydrolyses many phospholipids through interfacial binding. The mutated bvPLA2H34Q (bvPLA2m), in which histidine-34 is replaced by glutamine, is not catalytically active.
This protein has been shown to be a suitable membrane anchor and has been suggested as a suitable tumor-antigen vector for the development of novel dendritic cell-based vaccines. To confirm this feature, in this study the fusion protein PNY, composed of NY-ESO-1(NY(s)) fused to the C-terminus of bvPLA2m, was engineered.
bvPLA2m enhanced the binding of NY(s) to the membrane of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and, once taken up by the cells, the antigen fused to the vector was directed to both MHC I and MHC II peptide-loading compartments. bvPLA2m was shown to increase the cross-presentation of the NY(s)-derived, restricted HLA-A*02 peptide, NY-ESO-1157-165(NY157-165), at the T1 cell surface. DCs loaded with the fusion protein induced cross-priming of NY(s)-specific CD8 + T-cells with greater efficiency than DCs loaded with NY(s). Sixty-five percent of these NY(s)-specific CD8+ T-cell lines could also be activated with the DCs pulsed with the peptide, NY157-165. Of these CD8+ T-cell lines, two were able to recognize the human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-37, in a context of HLA-A*02. Only a small number of bvPLA2m CD8+ T-cell lines were induced, indicating the low immunogenicity of the protein.
It was concluded that bvPLA2m can be used as a membrane-binding vector to promote MHC class II peptide presentation and MHC class I peptide cross-presentation. Such a system can, therefore, be tested for the preparation of cell-based vaccines.

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