Pest Management Science
Concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were determined in honey collected in Spring 2013 from a variety of locations in England. The honey was produced before the moratorium in the EU on the use of neonicotinoids in pollinator-attractive crops became effective.
Neither imidacloprid, not its metabolites were detected in any honey samples. Concentrations of clothianidin ranged from < 0.02 µg/kg to 0.82 µg/kg and thiamethoxam concentrations were between < 0.01 µg/kg and 0.79 µg/kg.
Neonicotinoid concentrations were below those likely to cause any chronic mortality. The concentrations detected should provide a useful baseline against which the effectiveness of the moratorium in reducing exposure of honeybees can be measured.