Analgesic effects of mad honey (grayanotoxin) in mice models of acute pain and painful diabetic neuropathy
Hum Exp Toxicol, February 2014 vol. 33 no. 2 130-135
Objectives: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of mad honey (grayanotoxin, GTX), used in complementary medicine for a variety of purposes besides being food, on pain thresholds in normal mice as model for acute pain and diabetic mouse as model for neuropathic pain.
Methods: Hind paw withdrawal pain threshold to thermal stimulus was measured with a plantar analgesia meter in a mice model using healthy intact animals for acute pain and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals for chronic neuropathic pain. Time and dose-dependent effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered GTX were investigated in both acute and neuropathic pain.
Results: In the acute pain model, administration of GTX caused a dose- and time-dependent marked increase in the pain latency values. In diabetic mice, which had markedly increased threshold to pain, GTX (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) restored the mean pain latencies by decreasing from the pre-GTX treatment values of 3.2 ± 0.6 to 3.0 ± 0.9s at 10 min, 3.2 ± 0.6s at 20 min, 3.4 ± 0.6s at 30 min, 2.6 ± 0.5s at 60 min and 2.4 ± 0.6s (p < 0.05) at 100 min.
Conclusion: The results from this experimental study indicate that GTX exhibits significant analgesic activity and has potential benefits against painful diabetic neuropathy. This is compatible with the widespread use of GTX containing mad honey for alleviating pain. Further studies involving long-term applications are needed for a more decisive conclusion regarding the usefulness of GTX as an analgesic, especially in the treatment of painful neuropathy.