Profiling of alpha-Dicarbonyl Content of Commercial Honeys from Different Botanical Origins: Identification of 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) and Related Compounds
J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Oct 29. [Epub ahead of print]
The alpha-dicarbonyl contents of commercial honey samples from different botanical origins were analyzed as their quinoxaline derivatives using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS, HPLC-MS/MS, and HPLC-TOF-MS.
A total of nine such compounds were detected, of which five were previously reported in honey (glucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 2,3-butanedione) and three were reported only from sources other than honey [3-deoxypentulose, 1,4-dideoxyhexulose, and 3,4-dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE)].
An unknown alpha-dicarbonyl compound was also tentatively identified as an oxidation product of 3,4-DGE and was termed 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3,5-diene (3,4-DGD). Only glyoxal (0.3-1.3 mg/kg), methylglyoxal (0.8-33 mg/kg), and 2,3-butanedione (0-4.3 mg/kg) were quantified in all honey samples.
Furthermore, analysis of the alpha-dicarbonyl profile of various honey samples indicated that certain alpha-dicarbonyl compounds are found in specific honey samples in much higher proportions relative to the average amounts.
The free radical scavenging activity as measured by DPPH method has also indicated that the darker honey samples such as buckwheat, manuka, blueberry, and eucalyptus had higher antioxidant properties compared to lighter-colored samples.