The Flavonoid Chrysin Attenuates Colorectal Pathological Remodeling Reducing the Number and Severity of Pre-Neoplastic Lesions In Rats Exposed to the Carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine
Cell Tissue Res, 2013 Mar 7
Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring, bioactive substances with marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The flavonoid chrysin, found in high levels in honey bee propolis, inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis. We have investigated the effect of chrysin on pre-neoplastic colorectal lesions (ACF, aberrant crypt foci) in a rat model of chemical carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Female Wistar rats weighing 137.2 ± 24.3 g received weekly one subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) for 10 weeks.
The animals were divided into five groups each with seven animals: Group 1, 0.9% saline; Group 2, DMH+0.9% saline; Group 3, DMH+chrysin (10 mg/kg); Group 4, DMH+chrysin (100 mg/kg); Group 5, DMH+chrysin (200 mg/kg). Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant increase in ACF number, nucleolus organizer regions per enterocyte nucleus and nitrite/nitrate serum levels compared with Group 1. Groups 4 and 5 presented a significant reduction in all these parameters compared with Group 2. The levels of antioxidant minerals (copper, magnesium, selenium, zinc) and the number of enteroendocrine and mucin-producing cells were significantly reduced in Groups 2 and 3 but were similar in Groups 4 and 5 compared with Group 1.
Chrysin, at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, was effective in attenuating pathological colorectal remodeling, reducing the number of pre-neoplastic lesions in rats exposed to DMH. Some of these effects might be attributable to the recovery of antioxidant mineral levels, a reduction in systemic nitrosative stress and an inhibition of the cellular proliferation induced by this flavonoid.