Differences in Composition of Honey Samples and Their Impact on the Antimicrobial Activities against Drug Multiresistant Bacteria and Pathogenic Fungi
Archives of Medical Research, Available online 15 May 2013
Background an Aims
Antibiotic multiresistant microbes represent a challenging problem. Because honey has a potent antibacterial property, the antimicrobial effects of different honey samples against multiresistant pathogens and their compositions were investigated.
Five honey samples were used: Talah, Dhahian, Sumra-1, Sidr, and Sumra-2. Samples were analyzed to determine chemical composition such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, pH, total flavonoids, total phenolics, hydrogen peroxide concentration, minerals and trace elements. Antimicrobial activities of the samples against 17 (16 were multiresistant) human pathogenic bacteria and three types of fungi were studied. Specimens of the isolates were cultured into 10 mL of 10–100% (volume/volume) honey diluted in broth. Microbial growth was assessed on a solid plate media after 24 h and 72 h incubation.
The composition of honey samples varied considerably. Sumra 1 and 2 contained the highest level of flavonoids and phenolics and the lowest level of hydrogen peroxide, whereas Dhahian honey contained the highest level of hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen pathogens were antibiotic multiresistant. A single dose of each honey sample inhibited all the pathogens tested after 24 h and 72 h incubation. The most sensitive pathogens were Aspergillus nidulans, Salmonella typhimurum and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of honey samples, the most effective honey against bacteria was Talah and against fungi were Dhahian and Sumra-2.
Various honey samples collected from different geographical areas and plant origins showed almost similar antimicrobial activities against multiresistant pathogens despite considerable variation in their composition. Honey may represent an alternative candidate to be tested as part of management of drug multiresistant pathogens.