Thursday, September 30, 2010

Encapsulated Propolis Maintains Medicinal Properties

Microencapsulation of Propolis Extract by Complex Coacervation
LWT - Food Science and Technology, Article in Press

The propolis has potential to be a natural food additive. However, its application is limited, because it is alcohol-soluble and has strong flavour. Microencapsulation may be an alternative for reducing these problems.

The aim of this study was to encapsulate propolis extract by complex coacervation using isolated soy protein and pectin as encapsulant agents. The coacervation was studied as a function of pH (5.0, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.5) and the concentration of encapsulants and core (2.5 and 5.0 g/100mL). Samples obtained at pH 4.0 in both concentrations were lyophilized and analyzed for hygroscopicity, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, morphology, thermal behavior, stability of phenolic and flavonoids during storage, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

It was possible to encapsulate propolis extract by complex coacervation and to obtain it in the form of powder, alcohol-free, stable, with antioxidant property, antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and with the possibility of controlled release in foods.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

South African Honey Shows Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

Selected South African Honeys and Their Extracts Possess In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity
Archives of Medical Research, Volume 41, Issue 5, July 2010, Pages 324-331

Background and Aims

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori by triple therapy often results in a failure rate of 10-20%; thus, there is a need to seek alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to screen selected South African honeys for their anti-H. pylori activity, to extract the antimicrobial components using organic solvents and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts.


Three locally produced honeys from different regions in South Africa were screened for anti-H. pylori activity at four different concentrations using the agar well diffusion technique. Subsequently, Pure honey was extracted using n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate; extracts were also examined for anti-H. pylori activity by agar well diffusion method. The MICs of the three most active extracts were determined both by visual inspection and spectrophotometric analysis at 620 nm using the broth microdilution method. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA at 95% significance level.


All honeys demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity and were most active at 75% v/v. The positive control (clarithromycin) recorded a zone diameter of 18.0 ± 7.4 mm not significantly different (p >0.05) from honeys at 75% v/v and solvent extracts. Chloroform extract recorded the lowest MIC95 values that ranged from 0.156-5% v/v confirming this extract to be the most active.


All honeys demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity at concentrations ≥10%, as did the solvent extracts. Therefore, these honeys and solvent extracts possess potential compounds with therapeutic activity that could be further exploited as lead molecules in the treatment of H. pylori infections.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Propolis Component Has Anti-Tumor Potential

Antitumor Progression Potential of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Involving p75(NTR) in C6 Glioma Cells
Chem Biol Interact, 2010 Sep 10

The previous data showed that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, possesses inducing cell cycle arrest and antiproliferation effect on C6 glioma cells in vitro and in vivo.

In the present study, C6 glioma cells treated with CAPE resulted in morphological changes to an astrocytic phenotype and increased the expression of glial differentiation marker proteins including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100β. In addition, with scratch assay and Boyden chamber assay, CAPE exhibited inhibitory effects on the motility and invasion of C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, CAPE induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), which were involved in neural cell differentiation. CAPE could also inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and induce the expression of Rho B, a tumor suppressor.

To examine the involvement of p75(NTR) in the anti-invasive property of CAPE, western blotting and Boyden Chamber assay were performed by addition of an anti-p7(NTR) antibody in C6 cells. The results showed that blocking p75(NTR) could decrease the CAPE-induced the expression of RhoB and the inactivation of MMP-2, -9 as well as the anti-invasion effect in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, CAPE suppressed IκB-α pohsporylation which was down stream of p75(NTR).

Finally, the effect of CAPE on metastasis by lung colonization of the tumor cell in nude mice was also evaluated. It found that the groups of nude mice injected with CAPE-pretreated cells could decrease both lung size and weight as compared to the positive control group which did not receive CAPE treatment.

In addition, histological examination of the mouse lung sections showed that the CAPE-treated group inhibited the metastasis of C6 glioma cells.

These data suggest CAPE possesses anti-tumor progression potential.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Los beneficios de la 'Apiterapia' en la salud

El veneno de las abejas alivia dolores de articulaciones, la artritis, artrosis y reumatismo. Trome, 9/24/2010

¿Sabía usted que el aguijón de una abeja puede ayudarlo a aliviar los dolores causados por la artritis, artrosis y el reumatismo? Esta técnica se llama “Apiterapia” y es un método natural que ya tiene miles de adeptos en nuestro país.

Luciana Ghersi, médico cirujano y apiterapeuta del Ministerio de Salud, explica que el veneno que las abejas liberan tiene efecto desinflamante (de ahí que se recomiende para el tratamiento de artritis, artrosis y reumatismo), regula el sistema inmunológico y se emplea en el tratamiento de males como el estrés y la depresión, pues contiene neurotransmisores naturales (como la dopamina y la serotonina)…

Propolis Flavonoid Has Neuroprotective Properties

Astaxanthin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Through ERK1/2 Pathway and Its Protective Effect Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells
Brain Research, Article in Press

Astaxanthin (ATX), the most abundant flavonoids in propolis, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and ischemia–reperfusion-induced apoptosis.

Previous study have revealed that ATX can rescue PC12 cells from Aβ25–35-induced apoptotic death. However, the mechanisms by which ATX mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro are unclear. In the present study, we explored the underlying mechanisms involved in the protective effects of ATX on the Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicty in SH-SY5Y cells.Pre-treatment with ATX for 4 h significantly reduced the Aβ25–35-induced viability loss, apoptotic rate and attenuated Aβ-mediated ROS production.

In addition, ATX inhibited Aβ25–35-induced lowered membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. We also demonstrated that ATX could prevent the activation of p38MAPK kinase pathways induced by Aβ. Moreover, we for the first time have revealed the ATX increased antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners, which were correlated with its protective effect against Aβ25–35-induced injury. We also demonstrated that the specific ERK inhibitor, PD98059, concentration-dependently blocked on ATX-induced HO-1 expression.

Taken together, these findings suggest that astaxanthin can induce HO-1 expression through activation of ERK signal pathways, thereby protecting the SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ25–35-induced oxidative cell death.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Study Reviews Properties of Main Bee Venom Component

Melittin: A Membrane-Active Peptide with Diverse Functions
Bioscience Reports, Volume 27, Numbers 4-5, 189-223

Melittin is the principal toxic component in the venom of the European honey bee Apis mellifera and is a cationic, hemolytic peptide. It is a small linear peptide composed of 26 amino acid residues in which the amino-terminal region is predominantly hydrophobic whereas the carboxy-terminal region is hydrophilic due to the presence of a stretch of positively charged amino acids.

This amphiphilic property of melittin has resulted in melittin being used as a suitable model peptide for monitoring lipid–protein interactions in membranes.

In this review, the solution and membrane properties of melittin are highlighted, with an emphasis on melittin–membrane interaction using biophysical approaches. The recent applications of melittin in various cellular processes are discussed.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Portuguese Propolis Varies in Phenol Levels

Phenols and Antioxidant Activity of Hydro-Alcoholic Extracts of Propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal
Food and Chemical Toxicology, Article in Press

Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal.

Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol.

In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter.

Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone.

Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Research Transforms Deadly Bee Venom Into Helpful Medicine

By Sophia Porrino, Cornell Daily Sun, 9/22/2010

Bee venom: helpful?

Although bee venom is potentially fatal, its components may prove helpful in enhancing memory consolidation and in restoring smooth muscle movement in Parkinson’s patients. In addition, apitherapy antidotes have also been suggested for multiple sclerosis, arthritis, bursitis, and tendinitis, among other diseases.

If apitoxin were a cosmopolitan, apamin would be the lime juice, as it is the key ingredient that puts the bite into bee venom. Yet, this same kick may endow bee venom with its therapeutic benefits.

Research suggests that small doses of apamin can affect memory. Rats exhibited improved memory consolidation and retrieval skills 24 hours after injection.

The researchers theorized that bee venom could be used to synthetically modify erroneous dopamine levels for people suffering from Parksinson’s. Dopamine comprises 1.5 percent of apitoxin and is a neurotransmitter found in the human brain. Researchers hoped that treatment with bee venom could eliminate the adverse side effects of conventional anti-Parkinsonian medication, such as L-DOPA, which often include hypotension, arrhythmias, nausea, gastrointestinal bleeding, and disturbed respiration.

Although bee venom has noticeable effects on memory improvement, no definitive studies demonstrate improvement in Parkinson’s symptoms.

The Therapeutic Power of Manuka

The Sun Daily, 9/24/10

Manuka honey is now without doubt the most popular honey in the world. The Manuka tree is a native plant of New Zealand so Manuka honey is not produced anywhere else in the world.

The Maoris were the first people to settle in New Zealand and used the Manuka plant for its medicinal value. They have since discovered its immense benefits to the human body.

For over 20 years, Dr Peter Molan from the University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand, has been conducting scientific research into the healing properties of various types of New Zealand honey.

His research has revealed that all types of honey contain some degree of healing properties due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide which is effective against most strains of bacteria.

However, with Manuka honey, Molan discovered that there is an additional antibacterial component that is non-peroxide in nature.

The advantage of this non-peroxide entity is that the component is highly effective against even the most resistant bacteria.

It is also more resistant to heat and to breakdown by the catalase effect of body fluids than normal hydrogen peroxide activity.

Molan and his research team have termed this special factor, the Unique Manuka Factor (UMF), and thus such honey is known as UMF Manuka honey…

Thursday, September 23, 2010

American Apitherapy Society to Hold Annual Conference in Calif. Nov. 11-14

The American Apitherapy Society, Inc. (AAS), announces its annual Apitherapy Course and Conference (CMACC) on Nov. 11-14, 2010 in Los Angeles, CA.

See the AAS website for an Information Packet.

You may register online.

Bee Venom Therapy for Scars, 9/22/2010

According to limited sources* bee venom therapy (BVT) is an effective scar treatment. * (Singh, Ratner et al and Lee)

Having scars stung by bees resulted in improvement of scar appearance by reducing, soften, and flatten scar tissue, and toning down the color of the scar.

Of the 18 substances present in bee venom the enzyme hyaluronidase is mainly held accountable for these results. Also internal scar tissue is thought to benefit from this alternative therapy.

“Charles Mraz, a beekeeper in Middlebury, Vermont who has popularized bee venom therapy for the past 60 years, says that it is reasonable to try bee venom therapy in any clinical situation where nothing else works.” [...] “Keloids and other scar tissue are broken down and softened by the substances in the venom, and can flatten out and fade in color.” source: CareCure Forums...

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Bee Products Used to Treat Ulcers, High Blood Pressure, Acne, Constipation, Allergies

Honey is Nature's Gold
By Gloria Havenhand, Daily Express (UK), 9/21/2010

MOTHER Nature has made honey so sweet and comforting, so thick and syrupy with such a soothing texture that we often don’t give its medical qualities a second thought…

In recent years the growth in superbugs such as MRSA has seen honey come to the rescue for everything from abscesses and fungal infections to post-surgery wounds. Many of its medicinal, antibacterial and healing properties still baffle scientists but as a general immune-booster and a remedy for coughs, colds and sore throats it is well known.

A study by Pennsylvania State College of Medicine in the US found that honey outperformed over-the-counter cough medicine.

Here are some ways honey can help us:


Not only does honey stop cross-infection, it also prevents contamination moving on to other wounds.

Research by the University of Sydney in Australia in 2007 concluded that honey dressings should be used as a first choice, although the type of honey used is important as some have up to 100 times more antibacterial properties than others.

At the Children’s Hospital in Bonn, Germany, MRSA infection of a wound in one child was treated for 12 days with an antiseptic which saw no improvement. Australian antibacterial honey cleared it after two days.

Blood pressure

Borage honey contains the herb borage, which works in a similar way to statin drugs prescribed to lower blood pressure. Borage widens the arteries and the engorged blood supplies deliver feelings of wellbeing and energy.

Take two teaspoonfuls whenever the mood takes you but remember, a teaspoon of honey contains 22 calories, whereas the same amount of sugar contains 15.

Gastric (peptic) ulcers

This painful condition is caused by a bacterium attacking the stomach wall.

Honey sticks to the lining of the stomach preventing further damage.

Two teaspoons of honey up to three times a day stops ulcer damage according to research published by the US National Library of Medicine in Maryland.


Liquid honey has a mild laxative effect, especially appropriate for constipation associated with ageing and bloating caused by a diet rich in processed food.

Healthy heart

Honey has minute traces of acetylcholine which helps transmit nerve impulses throughout the body.

Measure your pulse, then take two to three teaspoons of honey 30 minutes before bed for two to three weeks.

Take your pulse again and you should notice the difference. Your pulse should be lower and more stable.
Here’s how the other bee products can benefit us:


Bees decorate the insides of their hives with a protective “wallpaper” called propolis.

It is an effective healer, germ-buster and rapid rescue treatment and is available in cream, liquid essence, spray and capsule form. Propolis cream can be applied to skin to treat psoriasis, eczema, acne and allergy rashes.

Mouth and gum infections can be alleviated by taking 30 drops of propolis essence, three or four times a day.

Dilute in warm water and gargle for sore throats and laryngitis. One drop a day during autumn and winter can act as a preventative measure against colds and flu.

Propolis also has an anti-inflammatory effect and three or four capsules a day can reduce joint pain.


If bees put their heads down millions of flowers, why don’t they get hay fever? The answer is because they are surrounded by nature’s own antihistamine, bee pollen.

Once bee pollen is inside your bloodstream, your body starts developing immunity to it. Adults should take four to six pollen capsules a day from March to September or two to three teaspoons of pollen-laden honey per day. This type of honey looks cloudy around the rim and may marble the whole jar.

Royal Jelly

This white, creamy substance, responsible for giving the queen bee an elegant, long body and long life, has a list of nutrients but scientists can’t work out its complete formula.

Royal jelly may help the brain stay young. It contains a compound called acetylcholine, which is used to send messages through the nerve network.

Levels of this transmitter decrease as we get older causing memory loss and a lack of concentration.

It is also a good source of vitamin B5, which is held in high esteem for both its de-stressing and its anti-ageing effects.


This expensive wax is high in beta-carotene, a bioflavonoid that is converted by the body into vitamin A, good for skin conditions such as acne.

Beeswax also contains antibacterial, anti-fungal and antioxidant properties, which is why it is applied to wounds and sores as a barrier against further injury…

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Propolis Component Targets Cancer Cells

Biochemical Mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) Selective Toxicity Towards Melanoma Cell Lines
Chemico-Biological Interactions, Volume 188, Issue 1, 6 October 2010, Pages 1-14

In the current work, we investigated the in vitro biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells.

Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O2 and HRP/H2O2 were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress in CAPE induced toxicity in melanoma cells. Ethylenediamine, an o-quinone trap, prevented the formation of o-quinone and oxidations of AA and NADH mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE.

The IC50 of CAPE towards SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 15 μM. Dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, increased CAPE's toxicity towards SK-MEL-28 cells indicating quinone formation played an important role in CAPE induced cell toxicity. Cyclosporin-A and trifluoperazine, inhibitors of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), prevented CAPE toxicity towards melanoma cells. We further investigated the role of tyrosinase in CAPE toxicity in the presence of a shRNA plasmid, targeting tyrosinase mRNA.

Results from tyrosinase shRNA experiments showed that CAPE led to negligible anti-proliferative effect, apoptotic cell death and ROS formation in shRNA plasmid treated cells. Furthermore, it was also found that CAPE selectively caused escalation in the ROS formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 cells which express functional tyrosinase.

In contrast, CAPE did not lead to ROS formation and ICG depletion in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells, which do not express functional tyrosinase. These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in CAPE's selective toxicity towards melanocytic melanoma cell lines.

Our findings suggest that the mechanisms of CAPE toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE included quinone formation, ROS formation, intracellular GSH depletion and induced mitochondrial toxicity.

Monday, September 20, 2010

Meet the Beekeeper Who's Championing the Healing Power of Pure Honey

By Jo Fairley, Daily Mail (UK), 9/18/2010

To listen to Gloria, there is nothing that her antibacterial bee products can’t help with: from burns to prostate problems, coughs to eczema and psoriasis, mouth ulcers to hay fever. (As Gloria chauffeured me the eight miles from Troway to Chesterfield Station, she fielded five calls on her mobile’s speakerphone from sneeze-free customers wanting to re-order.)

Anecdotally, bee stings can be helpful for multiple sclerosis, and also arthritis, ‘Which is probably why I don’t have it,’ she says cheerfully. ‘In some countries, “apitherapy” is registered as a medicine, and the US is trying to create regulations for its use.’

Honey has been used to treat infected surgical wounds in hospitals, overpowering even MRSA. ‘It’s not a surprise to me,’ Gloria notes. (Florence Nightingale used it, apparently, during the Crimean War.)…

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Propolis May Help Prevent Leishmaniasis

GC-MS Analysis and Antileishmanial Activities of Two Turkish Propolis Types
Parasitol Res, 2010 Sep 15

Propolis is a honeybee product with a very complex chemical composition and various pharmacological properties. This study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial activities of "Bursa" and "Hatay" propolis samples against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica strains.

Propolis samples were analysed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Promastigotes were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium in the absence and presence of several concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 μg/mL) of each propolis sample. The viability and cell morphology of promastigotes in each concentration were examined after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation.

The growth of leishmania parasites was significantly suppressed in the presence of 500, 750, and 1,000 μg/mL of Hatay propolis. Bursa propolis was found to be efficient in inhibiting the growth of leishmania promastigotes in culture media at these concentrations, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 μg/mL.

Thus, the in vitro results showed that the Hatay and Bursa propolis samples decreased significantly the proliferation of L. infantum and L. tropica parasites (p < 0.001); however, Bursa propolis was found to be more effective than Hatay propolis against leishmania promastigotes. These two natural products may be useful agents in the prevention of leishmanial infections.

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Honey Inhibits Tumor Growth

Oral Administration of Aloe Vera and Honey Reduces Walker Tumour Growth by Decreasing Cell Proliferation and Increasing Apoptosis in Tumour Tissue
Phytother Res, 2010 Sep 13

Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 11 million people and is responsible for almost 8 million deaths worldwide every year. Research in cancer control has shown the importance of co-adjuvant therapies.

Aloe vera may reduce tumour mass and metastasis rates, while honey may inhibit tumour growth.

This study verified the influence of Aloe vera and honey on tumour growth and in the apoptosis process by assessing tumour size, the cell proliferation rate (Ki67-LI) and Bax/Bcl-2 expression at 7, 14 and 20 days after Walker 256 carcinoma implant in Wistar rats distributed into two groups: the WA group - tumour-bearing rats that received a gavage with a 670 µL/kg dose of Aloe vera and honey solution daily, and the CW group - tumour-bearing rats which received only a 0.9% NaCl solution.

The effect of Aloe vera and honey against tumour growth was observed through a decrease in relative weight (%) and Ki67-LI in tumours from the WA group compared with those from the CW group. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in tumours from the WA group at all tested timepoints.

These data suggest Aloe vera and honey can modulate tumour growth by reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis susceptibility.

Friday, September 17, 2010

Malaysian Tualang Honey Kills Cancer Cells

Antiproliferative Effect of Tualang Honey on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Osteosarcoma Cancer Cell Lines
BMC Complement Altern Med, 2010 Sep 14;10(1):49

Background: The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and human osteosarcoma (HOS) includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often leads to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang) on OSCC and HOS cell lines.

Methods: Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20%) were applied on the OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit.

Results: Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of [greater than or equal to] 80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner.

Conclusion: Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

Thursday, September 16, 2010

Honey 'Strongly Protective' Against Development of Oral Mucositis

Effect of Topical Honey on Limitation of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis: An Intervention Study
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2010 Sep 8

Radiation therapy for oral carcinoma is therapeutically useful in dose of at least 6000cGy but causes mucositis that severely interferes with oral function. The literature indicates that honey appears to promote wound healing, so the authors investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties might limit the severity of radiation-induced oral mucositis.

A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out to compare the mucositis-limiting qualities of honey with lignocaine. A visual assessment scale permitted scoring of degrees of mucositis and statistical evaluation of the results was performed using the χ(2) test.

Only 1 of 20 patients in the honey group developed intolerable oral mucositis compared with the lignocaine group, indicating that honey is strongly protective (RR=0.067) against the development of mucositis. The proportion of patients with intolerable oral mucositis was lower in the honey group and this was statistically significant (p=0.000).

Honey applied topically to the oral mucosa of patients undergoing radiation therapy appears to provide a distinct benefit by limiting the severity of mucositis. Honey is readily available, affordable and well accepted by patients making it useful for improving the quality of life in irradiated patients.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Propolis Flavonoid Has Neuroprotective Properties

Astaxanthin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Through ERK1/2 Pathway and Its Protective Effect Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells
Brain Res, 2010 Sep 6

Astaxanthin (ATX), the most abundant flavonoids in propolis, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis.

Previous study have revealed that ATX can rescue PC12 cells from Aβ(25-35)-induced apoptotic death. However, the mechanisms by which ATX mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro are unclear.

In the present study, we explored the underlying mechanisms involved in the protective effects of ATX on the Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicty in SH-SY5Y cells.Pre-treatment with ATX for 4 h significantly reduced the Aβ(25-35)-induced viability loss, apoptotic rate and attenuated Aβ-mediated ROS production. In addition, ATX inhibited Aβ(25-35)-induced lowered membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

We also demonstrated that ATX could prevent the activation of p38MAPK kinase pathways induced by Aβ. Moreover, we for the first time have revealed the ATX increased antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners, which were correlated with its protective effect against Aβ(25-35)-induced injury. We also demonstrated that the specific ERK inhibitor, PD98059, concentration-dependently blocked on ATX-induced HO-1 expression.

Taken together, these findings suggest that astaxanthin can induce HO-1 expression through activation of ERK signal pathways, thereby protecting the SH-SY5Y cells from Aβ(25-35)-induced oxidative cell death.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Propolis Ointment ‘Significantly Improved’ Wound Healing

Wound Healing Properties of Indian Propolis Studied on Excision Wound-Induced Rats
Pharm Biol, 2010 Sep 7

Context: In traditional medicine propolis is widely used for the treatment of various ailments including ulcer and wound healing. The phytochemical screening of Indian propolis indicates the presence of biologically active ingredients in appreciable amounts. In the absence of systematic evaluation of wound healing properties of Indian propolis in the literature, the present study was undertaken.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of Indian propolis on excision wounds induced in experimental rats.

Materials and methods: Excision wounds were created in male Wistar rats and were treated with Indian propolis ointment (nitrofurazone was used as a reference drug - widely used for wound healing) for a period of 14 days. Control rats were treated with petroleum jelly. The parameters analyzed include wound contraction, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, uronic acid, total protein, DNA, and RNA.

Results: Topical application of propolis ointment for 14 days significantly improved the wound contraction when compared to the control group of rats. The determination of hydroxyproline, hexosamine, uronic acid, DNA, RNA and protein levels in the wound matrix revealed the pro-healing effects of propolis. The results obtained were comparable with nitrofurazone.

Discussion and conclusion: It appears that the ethanol extract of Indian propolis possesses significant pro-healing activity by accelerating the healing process at various phases of tissue repair. The presence of biologically active ingredients such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, benzoic acids, amino acids and vitamins, etc. in Indian propolis may readily account for the observed prophylactic action of propolis in wound healing.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Jordanian Propolis Shows Antibacterial Activity Against MRSA

Antibacterial Effect of Jordanian Propolis and Isolated Flavonoids Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria
African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 9 (36), pp. 5966-5974, 6 September, 2010

Propolis is a natural product widely consumed in folk medicine. The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Jordanian propolis, collected from two locations with two different dominant floras (Type1; Pine trees and Type ll; Oak trees).

Zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and standard strains of both bacteria.

Propolis Type I and Type II showed antibacterial activity against MRSA (MIC 4.69 and 18.75 µg ml-1, respectively). Crude propolis from Type I showed higher antibacterial activity than Type II against the tested bacteria. Three pure phenolic compounds (three flavonoids) namely, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, pinocemberin and chrysin, were isolated from fractions I-2 and I-4, and screened in vitro for antibacterial activity. Pinobanksin-3-O-acetate and pinocembrin exhibited antibacterial activity especially against MRSA, while chrysin was only active against standard S. aureus.

This is the first report that shows in vitro antibacterial activity of isolated flavonoids from Jordanian propolis against standard and resistant strains of E. coli and MRSA.

Overall, results of this study highlight the important role of propolis botanical source on the antibacterial activity of such natural material which might affect its medical applications.

Sunday, September 12, 2010

New Web Site Offers Info on Bioactivities of Honey

A new web site is now online ( which contains a large amount of educational information on the various health-promoting bioactivities of honey. The web site gives full details of all of the published journal articles and postgraduate theses from the Honey Research Unit at the University of Waikato, and gives links which allow free access to many of these publications.

The site also gives an outline of research work currently being done on honey at the University of Waikato. This new information resource for global consumers, researchers and members of the honey industry is part of the new ‘Molan Gold Standard’ certification system for bioactivities in honey. The site explains how the new certification system can be used by companies marketing honeys for their bioactivities to global consumers.

Bee Venom Potential Treatment for Fibrotic Diseases

Bee Venom Inhibits Hepatic Fibrosis Through Suppression of Pro-Fibrogenic Cytokine Expression
Am J Chin Med, 2010;38(5):921-35

Bee venom (BV) has a long tradition of use for the control of pain and inflammation in various chronic diseases.

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to the highly reactive trichloromethyl free radical and its peroxy radical. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether BV regulates the pro-inflammation and fibrosis related genes against a mouse model of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl(4) and ethanol-treated hepatocytes (ETH).

Test mice were administered with CCl(4) (2 ml/mg) and hepatocytes were treated with 25 mM ethanol. BV was added to the final concentration of 0.05-0.5 mg/kg and 1-100 ng/ml for in vivo and in vitro testing, respectively. Fibrotic livers and ETH were used for the measurement of hepatocyte necrosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes.

BV suppressed CCl(4)-induced hepatocyte necrosis markers of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also inhibited the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Moreover, BV inhibited CCl(4)-induced expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and fibronectin. Similarly, ETH exhibited significant suppression of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and fibronectin when cultured with BV.

These results suggest that BV possesses anti-fibrogenic properties that are mediated by the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic gene expression.

BV has substantial therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic diseases.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

Propolis Kills Cancer Cells

Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells Induced by Ethylacetate Extracts of Propolis
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 6(2): 84-88, 2010

Problem statement: Propolis has been ethno medically claimed to possess a wide array of biological activities including anticancer activity. The purpose of this research was to verify the folklore claim.

Approach: This study was performed in a human breast carcinoma cell, MCF-7. Extract of propolis from different solvent, ethylacetate and n-buthanol showed induced apoptotic cells was detected by flow cytometry.

Results: The results demonstrated that ethylacetate extract of propolis can induce apoptosis in MCF-7 as large as 13.21% during the 24 h incubation. On the other hand, doxorubicin is able to induce apoptosis as large as 18.89% during the 24 h incubation.

Conclusion: The extracts of propolis ethylacetate had cytotoxic activity and triggers apoptosis on MCF-7 cells.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Malaysian Tualang Honey Cuts Bacterial Growth in Wounds

Wound Contraction Effects and Antibacterial Properties of Tualang Honey on Full-Thickness Burn Wounds in Rats in Comparison to Hydrofibre
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 3 September 2010

Background: Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo.

Methods; Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n=12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time.

Results; There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15. The wounds remained smaller by day 18. Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds. However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii. There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds.

Thursday, September 09, 2010

Are Bee Products the New Alternative Medicine?

Bugs as Drugs, Part 1: Insects: The "New" Alternative Medicine for the 21st Century?
Altern Med Rev, 2010 Jul;15(2):124-35

Insects and insect-derived products have been widely used in folk healing in many parts of the world since ancient times. Promising treatments have at least preliminarily been studied experimentally.

Maggots and honey have been used to heal chronic and post-surgical wounds and have been shown to be comparable to conventional dressings in numerous settings. Honey has also been applied to treat burns. Honey has been combined with beeswax in the care of several dermatologic disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, and diaper dermatitis.

Royal jelly has been used to treat postmenopausal symptoms.

Bee and ant venom have reduced the number of swollen joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Propolis, a hive sealant made by bees, has been utilized to cure aphthous stomatitis. Cantharidin, a derivative of the bodies of blister beetles, has been applied to treat warts and molluscum contagiosum.

Combining insects with conventional treatments may provide further benefit.

Wednesday, September 08, 2010

Acacia Honey Component May Help Prevent, Treat Cancer

Acacia Honey and Chrysin Reduce Proliferation of Melanoma Cells Through Alterations in Cell Cycle Progression
Int J Oncol, 2010 Oct;37(4):973-81

Honey has long been used in medicine for different purposes. Only recently, however, its antioxidant property and preventive effects against different diseases, such as cancer, have been highlighted.

Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavone commonly found in acacia honey. It has previously been shown to be an anti-tumor agent. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative role of honey or chrysin on human (A375) and murine (B16-F1) melanoma cell lines.

The results of the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the trypan blue exclusion test showed that both the tested compounds were able to induce an antiproliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cytotoxicity induced by honey or chrysin was mediated by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of hyperploid progression.

Our results suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of honey are due mainly to the presence of chrysin. Chrysin may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Further investigation is needed to validate the contribution of chrysin in tumor therapy in vivo.

Tuesday, September 07, 2010

Registration Opens for Romanian Apitherapy Congress, Expo and Workshop

Where: RIN Grand Hotel, Bucharest, Romania
When: October 29 - November 1, 2010
Costs: Free of charge entrance for all our speakers, poster authors and
co-authors, and minimal costs for all other participants.


Bee Venom Components Identified

Characterization of Honeybee Venom by MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-qTOF Mass Spectrometry
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Article in Press

The aim of the study was to comprehensively characterize different honeybee venom samples applying two complementary mass spectrometry methods. 41 honeybee venom samples of different bee strains, country of origin (Poland, Georgia, and Estonia), year and season of the venom collection were analyzed using MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-qTOF-MS.

It was possible to obtain semi-quantitative data for 12 different components in selected honeybee venom samples using MALDI-TOF method without further sophisticated and time consuming sample pretreatment. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) has shown that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition between honeybee venom samples collected over different years. It has also been demonstrated that MALDI-TOF spectra can be used as a “protein fingerprint” of honeybee venom in order to confirm the identity of the product.

NanoESI-qTOF-MS was applied especially for identification purposes. Using this technique 16 peptide sequences were identified, including melittin (12 different breakdown products and precursors), apamine, mast cell degranulating peptide and secapin. Moreover, the significant achievement of this study is the fact that the new peptide (HTGAVLAGV + Amidated (C-term), Mr = 822.53 Da) has been discovered in bee venom for the first time.

Monday, September 06, 2010

Indian Scientist Invents Bee Venom Extractor

Inventor of the Bee Venom Extractor
Amrut Mantri, Jagran CityPlus, 9/3/2010

Bee venom extractor, an advanced, high-tech electronic technology, developed for the first time in India has proved to be a major breakthrough in extracting the bee venom in large quantity, from the sting of thousands of honey bees at a time, without killing a single honey bee.

Amrut Mantri, ex-scientist from TIFR, ECIL and NCL residing in Pune, Model Colony, who has invented this unique electronic system, has made a remarkable contribution to science and research in India, by devising this system. This technology is being successfully deployed and used for about three decades in India, by several Agriculture and Apiculture Universities for research and training.

The Bee Venom Extractor has been installed with live demonstration by extracting and collecting the Venom from the Mellifera Italian Honey Bees in the Department of Entomology and Apiculture at the Yashwant Singh Parmar Agriculture University and Forestry, Government of Himachal Pradesh, Nauni, Solan and also at All India Coordinated Project on Honey Bee Research and Training (ICAR) Department of Entomology, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur-Bihar.

The unique chemical properties of the Bee Venom relieve pains of Arthritis, Rheumatic and Sciatica or caused by Gout Strain or sports injury. The Bee Venom cream also gives you relief.

Talking more on this Mantri said, "The Bee Venom has long history in European folk medicine, and its unique chemical properties are now receiving serious scientific attention in many countries.

Topical application of Bee Venom successfully relieves suffering of muscle and joint pain. Bee Venom contains more than 18 biological active substances which cannot be produced by any synthetic methods. Although bees are totally dependent on plants, their venom contains no vegetable substances. Special glands in their abdomen secrete substances which form the mysterious bee venom once they are mixed. If the venom enters the human body for the first time via a bee sting, it can cause considerable swelling and skin irritation. This is why people have an almost instinctive fear of approaching a honey bee colony."…

Sunday, September 05, 2010

Bee Products Listed in ‘Top 5 Superfoods of the World’

Aug 31 (THAINDIAN NEWS) Obesity is on the rise all over the West, reaching epic proportions, and causing unhealthy children as well as adults. With food items such as the Krispy Creme Donut Cheeseburger on the menu in places like America, it is no surprise that our arteries are clogged and our bodies full of fat. Medical costs because of obesity in America alone are over 75 billion dollars a year.

On ‘Planet100’, a simple solution may have been introduced in the form of 5 “superfoods” that will help people to regain their health and lose the extra pounds which these horrible eating habits have caused. Planet100 counted down the five superfoods which are listed below...

Number 2-Bee Superfoods:

Egyptians wrote about the benefits of bee products in 2500 BC. The most complete food found in nature is bee pollen, which has five to seven times more protein than beef. Royal Jelly, which is the special honey that is made for the baby bees, and bee pollen are both natural allergy remedies, and possibly even slows down the aging process.

Saturday, September 04, 2010

Honey, Propolis Component May Help Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

Chrysin Suppresses LPS-Stimulated Proinflammatory Responses by Blocking NF-κB and JNK Activations in Microglia Cells
Neuroscience Letters, Article in Press

Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Suppression of microglial activation may therefore contribute to neuronal cell survival.

Chrysin is present in honey and propolis and in low concentrations in fruits, vegetables, and certain beverages. It has been reported that chrysin has potent anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidation properties.

In the present study, we investigated the effects of chrysin on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia. Chrysin significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also significantly inhibited by chrysin. Furthermore, chrysin inhibited the activations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are signaling molecules involved in neuroinflammation.

These results suggest that chrysin may act as a potential therapeutic agent for various neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation.

Friday, September 03, 2010

Chilean Ulmo Honey Shows High Antimicrobial Activity

Chile and Manuka Honey Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, September 2, 2010

Background: Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a Chilean honey made by Apis mellifera (honeybee) originating from the Ulmo tree (Eucryphia cordifolia), against selected strains of bacteria.

Methods: Ulmo 90 honey was compared with manuka UMF(R) 25+ (Comvita(R)) honey and a laboratory synthesised (artificial) honey. An agar well diffusion assay and a 96 well minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) spectrophotometric-based assay were used to assess antimicrobial activity against five strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Results: Initial screening with the agar diffusion assay demonstrated that Ulmo 90 honey had greater antibacterial activity against all MRSA isolates tested than manuka honey and similar activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The MIC assay, showed that a lower MIC was observed with Ulmo 90 honey (3.1% - 6.3% v/v) than with manuka honey (12.5% v/v) for all five MRSA isolates. For the E. coli and Pseudomonas strains equivalent MICs were observed (12.5% v/v). The MIC for artificial honey was 50% v/v. The minimum bactericidal concentration for all isolates tested for Ulmo 90 honey was identical to the MIC. Unlike manuka honey, Ulmo 90 honey activity is largely due to hydrogen peroxide production.

Conclusions: Due to its high antimicrobial activity, Ulmo 90 may warrant further investigation as a possible alternative therapy for wound healing.

Thursday, September 02, 2010

Apimedica & Apiquality Forum 2010 - September 28 to October 3 in Slovenia

Ljubljana Exhibition and Convention Centre, September 28 – 30 2010

Plenary Sessions

Systems and multidisciplinary approaches to the study of honeybee products from natural sources to human nutrition and medical applications.

Apiquality Forum

•Current state and development of international standards and legislation for honeybee products.
•Practice in the introduction of quality control systems for the production and processing of honeybee products.
•Local trademarks of honeybee products and their success on the global market

Apimedica Forum

•Nutritional value of honeybee products for target age and activity population groups.
•Role of microorganisms for honeybee products with added value (case of bee bread).
•Medical use of honey, current trends, and market situation


Study Looks at Antioxidant, Anti-Cancer Potential of Indian Honey

Studies on the Phenolic Profiling, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Indian Honey: In vitro Evaluation
Nat Prod Res, 2010 Sep;24(14):1295-306

Commercial honey types were screened for phenolic profile and anti-oxidant capacity.

Phenolic profiling was done using high performance liquid chromatography, which was further corroborated with electro spray ionisation-mass spectroscopy. Dihydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid were the major phenolic constituents found in the honey samples.

The anti-oxidant content and free-radical scavenging effect of honey were established using various assays. Total anti-oxidant potential and free-radical scavenging ability varied among the honey varieties and exhibited significant correlation with their phenolic content.

Further, honey samples with richly abundant phenolic content were found to limit oxidant-induced cell death more effectively. Cytotoxic studies of a selected sample on a breast cancer cell displayed growth inhibition, depending on the concentration used. Cell cycle analysis indicated increasing accumulation of cells at the sub-G(1) phase.

These results summarise the phenolic profile and anti-oxidant and cytotoxic potential of Indian honey samples for the first time.

Wednesday, September 01, 2010

What is Apitherapy and Its Benefits?


Tһеrе аrе literally hundreds οf alternative therapies tһаt аrе available fοr people tο try. Hοwеνеr one οf tһе Ɩеаѕt known аnԁ probably accepted therapies іf apitherapy. In tһіѕ article wе wіƖƖ look аt wһаt apitherapy іѕ аѕ well аѕ tһе health benefits tһаt саn bе gained frοm іt аnԁ tһе possible risks tο apitherapy.

Wһаt іѕ Apitherapy?

Apitherapy іѕ οftеn аƖѕο called bee therapy аnԁ іѕ tһе basically tһе uѕе οf bee products tο treat different conditions. Tһеrе аrе a number οf products tһаt саn һаνе health benefits аnԁ bе used іn apitherapy аnԁ tһеу include pollen, raw honey аnԁ royal jelly һοwеνеr tһе main one used іѕ bee venom. Tһе uѕе οf bee products аnԁ іn particular bee venom dates back tο ancient Greece, Egypt аnԁ China. In fact іt іѕ believed tһаt Hippocrates wһο іѕ considered tο bе tһе father οf medicine actually used bee stings tο treat people fοr conditions such аѕ arthritis. In addition іn 1888 Philip Terc published a paper οn bee venom аnԁ rheumatism. Today bee stings аrе used throughout tһе world аѕ a treatment fοr a wide variety οf different conditions аnԁ below wе wіƖƖ consider tһе benefits tһаt уοu сοuƖԁ ɡеt frοm tһе treatment.

Health Benefits οf Apitherapy

Tһе different bee products һаνе different benefits аnԁ саn bе used іn different ways. Below wе һаνе рut a list οf tһе mοѕt рοрuƖаr bee products tһаt аrе used іn apitherapy аnԁ tһе benefits tһаt уοu саn ɡеt frοm tһеm:

1. Bee Venom – tһіѕ саn bе given tο people аѕ actual stings οr саn bе given through a needle. Bee stings һаνе bееn shown tο contain substances such аѕ adolapin аnԁ melittin wһісһ аrе anti-inflammatory substances аnԁ аrе tһοuɡһt tο bе more powerful tһаn commonly prescribed products such аѕ cortisol. Fοr tһіѕ reason bee stings аrе tһought tο bе very valuable fοr treating conditions Ɩіkе arthritis, bursitis, rheumatism аnԁ tendinitis.

2. Bee Pollen – tһіѕ product іѕ high іn vitamins аnԁ minerals аnԁ саn bе used аѕ a nutritional supplement. In addition іt саn bе a valuable treatment fοr people suffering frοm seasonal allergies such аѕ hay fever. In additions ѕοmе claim іt саn һеƖр wіtһ anti-aging аnԁ athletic performance.

3. Raw Honey – tһіѕ іѕ honey tһаt һаѕ nοt bееn processed іn anyway аnԁ іѕ tһοuɡһt tο bе a source οf energy. In addition іt іѕ believed tο һаνе antibacterial properties tһаt сοuƖԁ mаkе іt ɡοοԁ fοr treating things Ɩіkе sore throats.

4. Royal Jelly – tһеrе һаνе bееn a number οf claims аbοut tһе health benefits οf royal jelly аnԁ ѕοmе ѕау іt саn һеƖр wіtһ things Ɩіkе fatigue, infertility, asthma, аnԁ lack οf appetite. In addition studies һаνе shown tһаt іt сοuƖԁ bе useful аt reducing cholesterol levels. Yοu wіƖƖ аƖѕο find royal jelly іn a number οf anti-aging products such аѕ face cream…