Thursday, November 30, 2017

Beeswax Component May Help Treat Ulcerative Colitis

[Effects in rats of bee-wax alcohols (D-002) on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate and ethanol].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2017 Apr-Jun;34(2):176-182


To investigate the effects of D-002, a mixture of 6 high molecular weight primary aliphatic alcohols, obtained from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on severe inflammatory ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by Dextran sulfate (DSS) and ethanol in rats (Ratus ratus).


Rats were randomly distributed in six groups: a zero control to which no damage was caused, and five to which the UC was induced: a negative control (vehicle), three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg) and a positive control with sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg) (reference substance). Clinical manifestations (body weight variation, diarrhea and rectal bleeding), macroscopic and histological damage score, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified.


The oral treatment with D-002 (25, 100 and 400 mg/ kg) significantly prevented the decrease in body weight. The dose of 400 mg/kg reduced the presence of diarrhea and rectal bleeding, although its comparison with the negative control only reached statistical significance on diarrhea. D-002 (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the score of macroscopic lesions (40.0; 43.3 and 47.2% inhibition, respectively), the histological damage score (31.5; 53.7 and 67.1% inhibition, respectively) and the activity of MPO (73.2; 83.6 and 85.0% inhibition, respectively), compared to the negative control group. Sulfasalazine significantly reduced all variables studied.


D-002 (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg) significantly protected the colonic mucosa in rats with severe inflammatory UC induced by DSS and ethanol.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Webinar November 29 on Apitherapy and Veterinary Medicine

CAA Webinar with French Veterinarian/Apitherapist Philippe Garcia

Date: November 29, 2017 Time: 2:30 pm (EST) Host: Canadian Apitherapy Association


Our first webinar talking about the use of apitherapy in the realm of Veterinary Medicine.

Welcome and enjoy the conference of our French Veterinarian/Apitherapist Philippe Garcia.

The Webinar will be directly translated in English by Yann Loranger, Secretary/Treasurer of the Canadian Apitherapy Association.

Monday, November 27, 2017

German Apitherapy Congress, Expo and Workshops March 23-27, 2018

The XVI-th. German Apitherapy Congress, Expo and Workshops with international participation, Passau, IBB Hotel City Centre, March 23-27, 2018. For more details contact Dr Stefan Stangaciu to

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Bee Venom Peptide May Help Treat Liver Cancer

The anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity of Mel-P15 is mediated by natural killer cells

Oncol Lett. 2017 Dec;14(6):6901-6906

Mel-P15 is a peptide derived from melittin, the main toxic component in the venom of the European honeybee Apis mellifera.

In the present study, the antitumor effects of Mel-P15 and the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in vivo were investigated. Mel-P15 directly stimulated natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in vitro, which was increased to 55.45% at a 4 µg/ml dose of Mel-P15.

In the mouse liver cancer (H22) xenograft mice model, Mel-P15 suppressed tumor growth in vivo; the tumor inhibitory rate was 61.15% following treatment with 2 mg/kg Mel-P15. In addition, the immune response was activated following Mel-P15 treatment. Mel-P15 treatment increased the spleen and thymus indices, promoted splenocyte proliferation, stimulated NK cytotoxicity and upregulated the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α.

In addition, the tumor inhibitory effect of Mel-P15 on BEL-7402-bearing nude mice was abrogated by the selective depletion of NK cells via the intraperitoneal injection of an anti-asialo GM-1 antibody.

The results suggest that Mel-P15 inhibits tumor growth in vivo by promoting NK cell cytotoxicity. Mel-P15 may therefore be a potential immunotherapy candidate for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Propolis, Honey Component Shows Anti-Inflammatory, Anti0cancer, and Anti-Viral Activities

Chrysin: Sources, beneficial pharmacological activities, and molecular mechanism of action

Phytochemistry. 2017 Nov 18;145:187-196

In recent years, public and scientific interest in plant flavonoids has tremendously increased because of their postulated health benefits.

This review was mainly focuses on the flavone chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), which occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the therapeutic effects of chrysin against various diseases.

In general, chrysin exhibits many biological activities and pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral activities. Moreover, many studies have reported on the bioavailability of chrysin. Because of its compromised bioavailability and enhanced protein stability, chrysin solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) synthesis avoids proteolytic degradation and sustained release of drug delivery.

To clarify the mechanism of action of chrysin, researchers have investigated the structural binding relationship of chrysin through the docking computation method.

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Ukrainian Honey-Propolis Gum Prevents Periodontal Disease

Made in Ukraine: periodontal disease treatment chewing gum 

Ukraine Good News, 11/21/2017

Marta Tsap, an Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University student, presented a chewing gum based on bactericidal and antiseptic properties of honey to prevent oral cavity diseases. The product is a great way to treat and prevent periodontal disease.

The chewing gum is based on caramelized honey, its effect was tested by the university dentistry faculty experts. The periodontium state of 6 out of 9 volunteers using the chewing gum for a month has improved.

In addition to honey, the gum contains wax, propolis and other beekeeping products.

As Marta says, the chewing gum is ready for serial production launch. The honey gum production start requires 209,000 UAH. The project will pay off in 2 years.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Propolis May Help Protect Against Radiation Damage

Radio-Modulatory Potential ofCaffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: A Therapeutic Perspective

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2017 Nov 13

Use of natural agents is an upcoming area of research in cancer biology. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester has received great attention because of its therapeutic potential in various conditions including cancer. It is an active/abundant component of propolis. Propolis is a honey bee hive product produced by bees using their enzyme-rich digestive secretions on resinous mix, bee wax and pollen from plants. It is used to protect the beehive against bacteria and other infections.Although a lot of work has been done on chemotherapeutic aspects of CAPE, its role as a radiomodulator is yet to be delineated. It can act both as radioprotector and radiosensitizer. Depending on the tissue type it can modulate the radiation response by following different mechanisms.

This review will focus on the differential radiomodulatory effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in normal and cancer cells.Besides chemistry and bioavailability,it's potential as a therapeutic agent against radiation induced damage will also be discussed.

Monday, November 20, 2017

Propolis: This Bee Product is a Powerful Natural Immune Booster

By: Jordyn Cormier, November 19, 2017

Cold and flu season is in full swing, which means it’s time to start bringing on immune boosters again. Some of us will chug freshly squeezed orange juice. Others will slam shots of elderberry kombucha. A few will start force-feeding themselves and their family pungent raw garlic, all in a martyrish effort to avoid getting sick. But there is probably something even more powerful missing from your natural immune defense arsenal…propolis.

Propolis is one of the most undervalued natural immune boosters out there. Personally, I use my propolis spray daily. After years of getting sick every cold/flu season, a friend sent me some propolis to try. Ever since then, even the most inevitable colds seem to repel off of me. It’s pretty amazing.

If you are unfamiliar with propolis, it is a bee product, much like honey is—but that’s where the similarities end. Bees use propolis to keep their hives free of invaders and disease. It lines the hive walls and acts essentially as the immune system of the hive. And guess what—it can do the same for your body...

Sunday, November 19, 2017

Turkish Honeys Beat Manuka Antibacterial Properties

Turkish honey beats world famous Manuka honey, study finds


The flower honey from Turkey's southeastern province of Hakkari has much higher antimicrobial capabilities compared to the world famous Manuka honey of Australia and New Zealand, a new study has found.

Sevgi Kolaylı, a chemistry professor at the Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon, says her recent study has found that several kinds of honey gathered from different parts of Turkey showed much higher antimicrobial activity compared to Manuka honey.

Kolaylı's study found that antimicrobial activities, which makes honey act against bacteria like antibiotics, are significantly higher in flower honey from Hakkari province compared to Manuka.

Several kinds of Turkish chestnut and oak honey also showed higher antibacterial properties, Kolaylı said.

The professor also said that Turkey ranks only behind China and Argentina as the world's top honey producing country.

"Antioxidant properties are richer in dark colored honey, whereas antimicrobial activities are higher in lighter colored honey," the professor explained, and added that Turkey is home to rich honey from both spectrums.

Saturday, November 18, 2017

Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis Boosts Oral Hygiene

The Influence of Toothpaste Containing Australian Melaleuca alternifolia Oil and Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis on Oral Hygiene and Microbiome in Patients Requiring Conservative Procedures

Molecules. 2017 Nov 13;22(11). pii: E1957

The study was based on the use of a toothpaste with antiphlogistic activity, containing Australian Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil-TTO) and ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEP). Fifty-one patients with varying conditions of the gingiva were divided into two groups.

The study group received the toothpaste with TTO and EEP, while the control group received the same toothpaste but without TTO and EEP. Approximal plaque index (API), simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s) and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination, swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. During the period of use of toothpastes with TTO and EEP, a significant reduction of the API was observed, as assessed upon the control visit after 7 days and after 28 days, compared to baseline. A statistically significant reduction of mSBI was observed after 7 and 28 days of using the toothpaste with TTO and EEP, as compared to the value upon the initial visit. Statistically significant differences in the OHI-s value were observed in the study group, which was using the active toothpaste. The use of a toothpaste containing TTO and EEP helps to maintain microbiome balance.

The observed stabilisation of bacterial microflora confirms the beneficial activity of toothpaste containing EEP and TTO compared to the control group, where the lack of these substances contributed to the emergence of qualitative and quantitative changes in oral microbiome.

Honey: A Therapeutic Agent for Disorders of the Skin

Cent Asian J Glob Health. 5(1):241

Problems with conventional treatments for a range of dermatological disorders have led scientists to search for new compounds of therapeutic value. Efforts have included the evaluation of natural products such as honey. Manuka honey, for example, has been scientifically recognised for its anti-microbial and wound healing properties and is now used clinically as a topical treatment for wound infections. In this review, scientific evidence for the effectiveness of honey in the treatment of wounds and other skin conditions is evaluated. A plethora of in vitro studies have revealed that honeys from all over the world have potent antimicrobial activity against skin relevant microbes. Moreover, a number of in vitro studies suggest that honey is able to modulate the skin immune system.

Clinical research has shown honey to be efficacious in promoting the healing of partial thickness burn wounds while its effectiveness in the treatment of non-burn acute wounds and chronic wounds is conflicted. Published research investigating the efficacy of honey in the treatment of other types of skin disorders is limited. Nevertheless, positive effects have been reported, for example, kanuka honey from New Zealand was shown to have therapeutic value in the treatment of rosacea. Anti-carcinogenic effects of honey have also been observed in vitro and in a murine model of melanoma.

It can be concluded that honey is a biologically active and clinically interesting substance but more research is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of its medicinal value in dermatology.

Friday, November 17, 2017

Powder Containing Extract of Green and Red Propolis a Possible Antimicrobial Agent

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effect of hydroxyapatite containing Brazilian propolis

Biomed Mater. 2017 Nov 14

The aim of this work was to produce hydroxyapatite powder (HA) containing dry extract of green and red propolis, and to evaluate possible bactericidal activity of the materials in a short period of time through a fast release system.

The ethanolic extracts of green and red propolis (EEP) were incorporated into the material by spray drying. After release tests, powders containing dry EEP were characterized regarding the content of total phenolics and flavonoids. Materials characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by plate colony counting, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cytotoxicity of the materials was determined by the neutral red incorporation method. Materials showed apparently spherical morphology, indicating a decrease in the agglomeration degree with the propolis addition.

HA and propolis characteristic functional groups were observed in FTIR. Materials had higher release of phenolics and lesser amounts of flavonoids when compared to the EEP, with the higher amounts of flavonoids observed for HA with red propolis. The bactericidal effect for all materials was observed within the interval of 0.5 to 1 hour. All materials showed lesser inhibitory activity (MIC) and higher bactericidal activity (MBC) when compared to the EEP, with the best results attributed to HA with red propolis. The values of IC50 (concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the cell growth) obtained from the cytotoxicity assay for HA with green and red propolis lied between MIC and MCB.

Considering these results, it is suggested that HA with propolis may be used as a possible antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, despite further in vivo biocompatibility should be investigated before using this material as a medical device with bactericidal potential.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects

Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

Molecules. 2017 Nov 8;22(11). pii: E1928

Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG) neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats.

Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage). Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight) of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight) once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation.

The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels.

Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis.

The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2017 Nov 1;18(11):1004-1008.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans.


Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts.


When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm).


This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with other preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations.


Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Honey Polyphenols May Help Treat Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer, and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Beneficial roles of honey polyphenols against some human degenerative diseases: A review

Pharmacol Rep. 2017 Jul 4;69(6):1194-1205

Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties.

Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health. To date, several studies have attempted to elucidate the molecular pathway for specific polyphenols acting against particular diseases.

In this review, we report on the various polyphenols present in different types of honey according to their classification, source, and specific functions and discuss several of the honey polyphenols with the most therapeutic potential to exert an effect on the various pathologies of some major diseases including CVD, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Royal Jelly as Skin Moisturizing Agent

10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid in Royal Jelly Extract Induced Both Filaggrin and Amino Acid in a Cultured Human Three-Dimensional Epidermis Model

Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 48

Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural product which the honeybee secretes as a special diet for a queen bee. It is one of the natural products in which various functionalities, such as antibacterial effects, immunomodulating properties, and estrogen-like action, were reported.

We investigated the effect of the RJ extract on the moisturizing effect by topical application in humans. The stratum corneum moisture was increased significantly after four weeks by using the RJ extract lotion compared to placebo lotion. RJ extract contained a characteristic ingredient, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDAA), etc. However, the mechanism of stratum corneum moisture and its contributing ingredient have not yet been elucidated.

We have investigated the effects of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the free amino acids content in the stratum corneum using a cultured human three-dimensional epidermis model. Additionally, the effect of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the amounts of filaggrin (FLG) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were investigated at the mRNA level and by immunohistochemistry using a cultured human epidermis model. It was determined that 10H2DA increases the free amino acids in the stratum corneum of the cultured human epidermis model, and that it increased FLG on both the mRNA and protein levels. On the other hand, these actions are not observed by treatment of 10HDAA. The mRNA and protein level of AQP3 did not increase with 10H2DA or 10HDAA use.

It was thought that the increase in the amount of FLG and the increase in the free amino acids of the epidermis and the stratum corneum, respectively, by 10H2DA were participating in the moisturizing function of the stratum corneum by the continuous use of RJ extract lotion.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

New Product Uses Propolis, Bee Venom, Wax Moth Extract to Treat Joint and Tissue Pain

SustaFix LLC Created a Honey-Based Product for Treating Joint and Tissue Pain

November 10, 2017 --( A novel honey-based product for treating joint and tisssue pain has been created and manufactured in Atlanta, Georgia. SustaFix gel contains propolis extract, bee venom, bee extract, beeswax, cedar sap, olive oil, horse chestnut extract and wax moth extract. Additional ingredients embaded in product's formula include vitamins C, B1, and B5, which play role in strengthening the vein muscle walls and tissue regeneration. Other ingredients include substances that possess vasodilatory and painkilling properties. SustaFix's action is pointed at relieving the inflammation, eliminating pain and swelling of joints, and repressing the symptoms of arthritis and arthrosis.

The use of honey for medical purposes is known for decades as alternative or complementary medicine. Today it is gaining popularity not only in the United States, but Europe and Asia as well. According to a research, made by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in 2007 (, almost 40 percent of adults in America use some form of alternative medicine. It is known that honey is widely used in treating a variety of medical conditions, including arthritis, joint a, promotes burn and wound healing, and helps in suppressing cough.

SustaFix beeswax gel smooth consistency makes it easily applicable on the affected areas. A small amount of the gel should be spread on the area of concern and then - gently massaged until its full absorption. Tube contains 100 ml substance, that should be applied once or twice a day depending on the severity of the condition.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Propolis Prevents Biodegradation of Natural Rubber

Propolis as an antidegradant and biocidal agent for natural rubber

Journal of Applied Polymer Science

First published: 7 November 2017

The numerous applications of polymers in many areas of our lives make it necessary to protect them from aging. Increases in the safety and time of polymer material exploitation demands the application of antidegradants with broad scopes of action.

In this study, crude propolis, originating from two geographical regions of Poland, was used to protect peroxide-cured natural-rubber vulcanizates filled with silica or carbon black from degradation by oxygen, ozone, and microorganisms. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed the stability of propolis under the curing conditions. From vulcametric torque measurements and determinations of the mechanical properties, we determined that the incorporation of propolis did not adversely affect the performance of the natural-rubber vulcanizates.

The addition of propolis to the rubber mix made the vulcanizates resistant to thermooxidative and ozone aging and protected them from biodegradation in soil and the action of microorganisms.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture Helps Treat Lower Back Pain

Efficacy of Bee Venom Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Trial

Toxins 2017, 9(11), 361

Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP) through the pharmacological effects of bee venom and the simultaneous stimulation of acupoints. However, evidence of its efficacy and safety in humans remains unclear.

Using a double-blind, randomized study, 54 patients with non-specific CLBP were assigned to the BVA and sham groups. All participants underwent six sessions of real or sham BVA for 3 weeks, in addition to administration of 180 mg of loxonin per day. The primary outcome, that is, “bothersomeness” derived from back pain, was assessed using the visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, dysfunction related to back pain (Oswestry Disability Index), quality of life (EuroQol 5-Dimension), and depressive mood (Beck’s depression inventory). Outcomes were evaluated every week during the treatment period and followed up at weeks 4, 8, and 12.

After 3 weeks of the treatment, significant improvements were observed in the bothersomeness, pain intensity, and functional status in the BVA group compared with the sham group. Although minimal adverse events were observed in both groups, subsequent recovery was achieved without treatment.

Consequently, our results suggest that it can be used along with conventional pharmacological therapies for the treatment of CLBP.

Thursday, November 09, 2017

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course and Conference (CMACC)

Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach

November 10-12 2017

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277


Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Hepatitis B

Medical Express, 11/7/2017

"We now have a drug that can knock down hepatitis B surface antigen and determine whether or not we can actually cure people with that," Dr. Lanford said.

The drug is delivered by subcutaneous (under the skin) injection. Scientists designed a molecule that delivers the medicine directly to the liver where it binds to a receptor. Then, another molecule that's derived from bee venom, helps break through membranes in the liver cells to deliver the medicine directly into the cytoplasm of the cells where it takes effect. The siRNA interferes with the expression of the HBV messenger RNA that produces the surface antigen...

Wednesday, November 08, 2017

Indian Propolis as a Potential Nutraceutical Candidate

Marker-based standardization and investigation of nutraceutical potential of Indian propolis

J Integr Med. 2017 Nov;15(6):483-494


Propolis, a resinous material collected by honey bees from various plants, has been explored globally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, research over Indian propolis is at infancy. This study was designed to investigate nutraceutical potential of Indian propolis.


In the present study, propolis extract was standardized with respect to markers caffeic acid phenethyl ester, caffeic acid, galangin, luteolin, curcumin, apigenin, pinocembrin and quercetin by new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods. The physico-chemical analysis, residues analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity analysis were performed. Nutraceutical value was examined in terms of fats, fibers, minerals, proteins, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, and energy value.


The developed HPTLC methods were found to be simple, reliable accurate, and the validation parameters were within the limits of the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. Macerated ethanolic extract of propolis (MEEP) was found to have polyphenolic content of (20.99 ± 0.24) mg/g and flavonoids content of (8.39 ± 0.04) mg/g. MEEP was found to comprise of (283.33 ± 51.31) g/kg fats, (30.07 ± 7.30) g/kg fibers, (102.56 ± 2.84) g/kg proteins and (389.36 ± 57.50) g/kg carbohydrate with a calorie value of (38 409.33 ± 6 169.80) kJ/kg. It was found that Indian propolis exhibited high nutraceutical value and showed absence of pesticides and heavy metals. The MEEP showed in vitro antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration of (12.24 ± 4.64) μg/mL.


The present work explores Indian propolis as a potential nutritious candidate. The proposed analytical methods can be applied in future screening of the quality of Indian propolis.

Tuesday, November 07, 2017

Honey May Help Eradicate Methicillin Sesistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Randomised controlled trial of honey versus mupirocin to decolonise patients with nasal colonisation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the lessons learned

J Hosp Infect. 2017 Oct 26. pii: S0195-6701(17)30582-0


To describe the learning experience from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the efficacy of medical-grade honey (MGH) with mupirocin 2% for the eradication of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).


Patients colonised in the nose with MRSA and age ≥18 years were recruited. Participants received either one or two courses of MGH or mupirocin 2%, three times per day for five consecutive days.


The proportion of patients who were decolonised after one or two courses of treatment was not significantly different between MGH (18/42; 42.8%; 95% CI: 27.7% - 59.0%), and mupirocin 2% (25/44; 56.8%; 95% CI: 41.0% - 71.7%). Non-nasal MRSA colonisation was significantly associated with persistent nasal colonisation, (p = 0.003, OR, 5.186, 95% CI: 1.736 - 15.489). The rate of new acquisition of mupirocin resistance was 9.75%.


Although not significant, a decolonisation rate of 42.8% for MGH was impressive. In the absence of other effective agents, MGH has a potentially clinically important role. Our findings suggest this strategy, which has the potential to combat antimicrobial resistance, should be assessed in similar but larger studies. Studies of natural agents where there is no commercial patent and which are, therefore, unlikely to be funded by industry, need to be adequately funded by national and or international agencies so that well designed multi-centre RCTs can be carried out which may provide alternatives to antibiotics where resistance is a continuing challenge. The lessons learned may help guide future studies in determining realistic recruitment potential.

Monday, November 06, 2017

Malaysian Stingless Bee Honey High in Anti-Oxidants

Malaysian stingless bee and Tualang honeys: A comparative characterization of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LWT - Food Science and Technology
Volume 89, March 2018, Pages 1-9

• Malaysian Stingless bee honey has higher vitamin C, protein, polyphenols content than Tualang honey.
• LC-MS identified several phenolic compounds in stingless bee honey.
• Stingless bee honey had the highest anti-oxidant performance.
• Polyphenol content of stingless bee honey was associated with antioxidant activities.

This study aims to examine and compare the phenolic profile and antioxidant properties of two kinds of honey: Stingless bee honey (Kelulut honey) and Tualang honeys. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, a total of eighteen phenolic acids and flavonoids have been identified in Kelulut honey samples. The phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (three assays: DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC) for Kelulut and Tualang honeys were evaluated and statistically estimated. There was a significant (p < 0.05) phenolic content (228.09 ± 7.9–235.28 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid equivalent per kg) and flavonoid content (97.88 ± 10.1–101.5 ± 11.4 mg catechin equivalent per kg) in Kelulut honey samples. The Kelulut honey samples have demonstrated a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than Tualang honey samples. The correlations between antioxidant results and polyphenols content were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). This research is the first to report data on phenolic profile and total antioxidant capacity of Kelulut honey. Our data suggest that Kelulut honey has prominent medical properties and could be exploited as a natural nutraceutical to treat free radical associated diseases.

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Review of Medicinal Uses of Honey

Towards a better understanding of the therapeutic applications and corresponding mechanisms of action of honey

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Nov 3

Honey is a bee-derived supersaturated solution composed of complex contents mainly glucose, fructose, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Composition of honey may vary due to the difference in nectar, season, geography, and storage condition. Honey has been used since times immemorial in folk medicine and has recently been rediscovered as an excellent therapeutic agent.

In the past, honey was used for a variety of ailments without knowing the scientific background and active ingredients of honey. Today, honey has been scientifically proven for its antioxidant, regulation of glycemic response, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular potentiating agent. It can be used as a wound dressing and healing substance. Honey is different in color, flavor, sensory perception, and medical response. Apart from highlighting the nutritional facts of honey, we collected the finding of the published literature to know the mechanism of action of honey in different diseases.

This review covers the composition, physiochemical characteristics, and some medical uses.

Friday, November 03, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Chronic Pain

Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Toxins 2017, 9(11), 351

Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor.

Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation.

Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA.

These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α2-adrenergic receptor.

Thursday, November 02, 2017

Propolis as a Remedy for Toe Nail Fungus

5. Propolis solution

The more you apply the alcohol solution of propolis on the affected areas, that is, of course, better. You will be pleasantly surprised how fast will be the effect of the propolis. But note that even with the disappearance of the external manifestations of the disease, treatment should continue for some time. This completely eliminates the possibility of re-emergence of the fungus.

Wednesday, November 01, 2017

Vietnamese Propolis May Help Treat Cancer

A surprise discovery: Vietnam’s propolis can help treat cancer


Biologically, propolis is a mixture of resins and secretions from the honey bee’s salivary gland, which is flexible and glutinous at high temperatures but hard and fragile at low temperatures.

Studies have found more than 149 compounds and 22 different types of minerals in propolis. These compounds have many biological activities: antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer.

Most of the products made of propolis take full advantage of its antibacterial characteristics. Bees use propolis to stabilize the structure of the nest, reduce vibration, mend tears and cracks of the nest. This strengthens the defense of the nest by blocking the entrance, prevents parasites and invasive bacteria, restricts the development of bacteria, fungi, and prevents any possibility of spreading harmful disease.

The best known propolis products available in the market are from South American countries, including Green Propolis which has very strong antibacterial activity, used to prevent flu.

Vietnam’s propolis has weaker antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, Vietnam’s propolis has very strong anti-cancer activity, especially pancreatic cancer.
Mai and her co-workers found that the propolis of Apis mellifera, which is raised in Vietnam, has flavonoid and polyphenol compounds much lower than the Brazilian honey bee, by 3-10 times.

Therefore, Vietnam’s propolis has weaker antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, Vietnam’s propolis has very strong anti-cancer activity, especially pancreatic cancer...