Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Bioactive Compounds and Health-Promoting Properties of Royal Jelly: A Review

Journal of Functional Foods, Available online 14 January 2012

Royal jelly (RJ) is an important functional food item that possess several health promoting properties. It has been widely used in commercial medical products, healthy foods and cosmetics in many countries.

RJ has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity and antitumor activity. Biological activities of RJ are mainly attributed to the bioactive fatty acids, proteins and phenolic compounds.

In consideration of potential utilisation, detailed knowledge on the composition of RJ is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which RJ can be put gives this novel food great industrial importance.

This review summarises the composition, nutritional value and functional properties of RJ.


► Consumers and food industry have growing interest on novel foods of health-promoting properties. ► Royal jelly (RJ) is an interesting functional food with high levels of bioactive compounds. ► Biological activities of RJ are attributed to bioactive fatty acids, proteins and phenolic compounds. ► This review summarises the nutritional value and functional properties of RJ.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

More Than Half of Saudis Use Bee Products as Alternative Medicine

Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia
Oman Med J, 2012 Jan;27(1):20-6


Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.


A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1(st) January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.


Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.


There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Acetone Shows Highest Propolis Extraction Capacity

Chemical and Functional Characterization of Italian Propolis Obtained by Different Harvesting Methods
J. Agric. Food Chem, Just Accepted Manuscript

The composition and the antioxidant activity of Italian poplar propolis obtained using three harvesting methods and extracted with different solvents were evaluated. Waxes, balsams, resins contents were determined. Flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols and total phenolics were also analyzed.

To characterize the phenolic composition, the presence of 15 compounds was verified through HPLC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and reducing power assays. The ability of propolis to inhibit the lipids oxidation was monitored by analyzing the hydroperoxides and TBARS formation in lipids incorporated into an O/W emulsion.

Acetone shows the highest extraction capacity. The wedges propolis have the highest concentration of active phenolic compounds (TP = 359.1 ± 16.3 GAEs/g; TFF = 5.83 ± 0.42%; TFD = 7.34 ± 1.8%) and seem to be the most promising for obtaining high-value propolis more suitable to prepare high quality dietary supplements. (TBARS = 0.012 ± 0.009 mmol std/g; RP = 0.77 ± 0.07 TEs/g).

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Australian to Study Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant Properties of Stingless Bee Propolis

Ex-Student Wins $75,000 Grant
Hannah Busch, Fraser Coast Chronicle, 2/24/2012

FORMER Urangan High School student Karina Hamilton has once again forged ahead in the science world after taking out a prestigious government grant worth $75,000 to study if bee sap can heal wounds.

The 21-year-old won the grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council to undertake a three-year study.

Ms Hamilton will try to determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of propolis from native Australian stingless bees.

Bees collect sap from trees and buds before returning to the hive to mix it with pollen or wax to create propolis.

"So far, no one has looked at the propolis from the Australian native bee.

"So we are hoping to discover that it has similar healing abilities (to other bee propolis)," Ms Hamilton said.

During the study, propolis from hives in the field will be applied to human cells such as white blood cells…

Saturday, February 25, 2012

Honey’s Antibacterial Action Against MRSA and VRE Involves Hydroxyl Radicals from Hydrogen Peroxide

Mechanism of Honey Bacteriostatic Action Against MRSA and VRE Involves Hydroxyl Radicals Generated from Honey's Hydrogen Peroxide
Front Microbiol, 2012;3:36. Epub 2012 Feb 7

It has been recently reported that honey hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with unknown honey components produced cytotoxic effects resulting in bacterial growth inhibition and DNA degradation.

The objective of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether the coupling chemistry involving hydrogen peroxide is responsible for a generation of hydroxyl radicals and (b) whether (•)OH generation affects growth of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

The susceptibility of five different strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and four strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates from infected wounds to several honeys was evaluated using broth microdilution assay. Isolates were identified to genus and species and their susceptibility to antibiotics was confirmed using an automated system (Vitek(®), Biomérieux(®)). The presence of the mec(A) gene, nuc gene and van(A) and (B) genes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.

Results showed that no clinical isolate was resistant to selected active honeys. The median difference in honeys MICs against these strains ranged between 12.5 and 6.25% v/v and was not different from the MIC against standard Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Generation of (•)OH during bacteria incubation with honeys was analyzed using 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) as the (•)OH trap. The (•)OH participation in growth inhibition was monitored directly by including APF in broth microdilution assay. The growth of MRSA and VRE was inhibited by (•)OH generation in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure of MRSA and VRE to honeys supplemented with Cu(II) augmented production of (•)OH by 30-fold and increased honey bacteriostatic potency from MIC(90) 6.25 to MIC(90)< 0.78% v/v.

Pretreatment of honeys with catalase prior to their supplementation with Cu ions fully restored bacterial growth indicating that hydroxyl radicals were produced from H(2)O(2) via the Fenton-type reaction.

In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that bacteriostatic effect of honeys on MRSA and VRE was dose-dependently related to generation of (•)OH from honey H(2)O(2).

Friday, February 24, 2012

Honey Could Help Treat Gastric Ulcers

Using Food to Reduce H. pylori-Associated Inflammation
Phytotherapy Research, Early View

Inflammation is widely recognized as a risk factor for gastric H. pylori-associated disease and disruption of this process provides a potential target for intervention. Using an in vitro system, broccoli sprouts, manuka honey and omega-3 oil, singly and in combination, were screened for their ability to limit H. pylori-associated inflammation.

Each food significantly attenuated the release of IL-8 by H. pylori-infected cells, although the magnitude of this effect was variable. Only broccoli sprouts (0.125 mg/mL, w/v) were able to inhibit IL-8 release in response to TNFα, suggesting it acted by a different mechanism to the other two foods.

The combination of manuka honey (1.25%, v/v) with omega-3 oil (0.006%, v/v) failed further to reduce IL-8 levels below those observed with honey alone, but the same concentrations of omega-3 oil and manuka honey independently enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of the isothiocyanate-rich broccoli sprouts.

The results suggest that in the future certain foods may find increased clinical use as a non-antimicrobial approach for reducing the inflammation that is a major risk factor for H. pylori-associated disease, notably gastric cancer.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

New Zealand’s Manuka Health to Launch Therapeutic Honey

By Gunraj Sandhu, Tops News, 2/21/2012

As per recent reports, it has been recently revealed that Waikato-based company Manuka Health is going to launch a specialized honey, which will be made using international technology.

Manuka Health Chief Executive Kerry Paul said that the honey which will be available in New Zealand from next month will increase the therapeutic and financial value of their product. The honey will be made using Japanese process, which combines the bioactive properties of the honey with other medicinal plants.

Paul said that the combination with other medicinal plant will increase the antibacterial properties of honey and will make it more effective than raw honey, which is said to be purest form of the same.

A lot of efforts have been made to develop the new form of honey, said Paul, who further affirmed that scientists at the Kobe Medical School were the ones, who said that cyclodextrins will be a great bioactive booster and will derive best results if mixed with honey…

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Phenolic Extracts from Cuban Honeys Protect Red Blood Cells

Phenolics from Monofloral Honeys Protect Human Erythrocyte Membranes Against Oxidative Damage
Food and Chemical Toxicology, Available online 4 February 2012

The aim of the present work was to analyze the phenolic extracts from two monofloral Cuban honeys for their in vitro total antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds content and free radical scavenging activity.

The phenolic extracts, rich in lipophilic compounds, were tested further for their ability to inhibit AAPH-induced oxidative damage (hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and cytosolic depletion of reduced glutathione and decrease of superoxide dismutase activity) in erythrocytes. Results indicate an important total antioxidant capacity measured by TEAC and ORAC assays, as well as a relevant radical scavenging activity performed by EPR. Moreover, 13 phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC–LC/MS with quercetin as the most abundant flavonoid.

The results also show that both extracts were able to inhibit erythrocytes oxidative damage, and that this may likely be due to their incorporation into cell membranes and their ability to cross it and reach the cytosol. In fact, flavonoid uptake by erythrocytes was further confirmed by testing quercetin, which efficiently incorporated into erythrocytes.

Overall, this study indicates that honey contains relevant antioxidant compounds responsible, at least in part, for its biological activity and that uptake of its flavonoids may provide defense and promote cell functions in erythrocytes.


► Monofloral honey extracts have high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (ORAC). ► Honey phenolic extracts have radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+ and HO). ► Honey phenolic extracts protect RBC against AAPH-induced lysis and lipid peroxidation. ► Honey phenolic extracts protect RBC from cytosolic depletion of enzymes GSH and SOD. ► Quercetin is able to incorporate into RBC structures providing defence and promoting cell function.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Honey Helps Reduce Elevated Blood Pressure

Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress
Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2012;2012:374037, Epub 2012 Jan 23

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension.

This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect.

SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of GST and catalase (CAT) were higher in the kidney of control SHR.

Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR.

Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

Monday, February 20, 2012

Argentinians Use Honey in Home Medicines

Honey-Based Mixtures Used in Home Medicine by Nonindigenous Population of Misiones, Argentina
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012;2012:579350, Epub 2012 Jan 22.

Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of Misiones, Argentina. Medicinal mixtures are an underinvestigated issue in ethnomedical literature concerning Misiones, one of the most bioculturally diverse province of Argentina. The new culturally sensitive politics of the Provincial Health System is a response to cultural practices based on the medicinal use of plant and animal products in the home medicine of the local population.

Honey-based medicinal formulas were investigated through interviews with 39 farmers of mixed cultural (Criollos) and Polish origins in northern Misiones. Fifty plant species and 8 animal products are employed in honey-based medicines. Plants are the most dominant and variable elements of mixtures. Most of the mixtures are food medicines.

The role of honey in more than 90% of formulas is perceived as therapeutic. The ecological distribution of taxa and the cultural aspects of mixtures are discussed, particularly the European and American influences that have shaped the character of multispecies medicinal recipes.

Apitherapy Talk in Indianapolis Feb. 25

Kristine Jacobson, an AAS Board Member and an Apitherapist, will speak on Apitherapy at the Indiana Beekeepers Association.

Time: 10 am & 11 am
Place: Southport Presbyterian Church, 7525 McFarland Blvd. Indianapolis
For information, see Indiana Bee School X at

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Honey Helps Treat Stomach Ulcers

Gastric Cytoprotection and Honey Intake in Albino Rats
Niger J Physiol Sci, 2011 Nov 23;26(1):39-42

Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria.

This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa.

Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores.

The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+0.70 for the control group and 1.6+0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group.

It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric mucosa of albino rats.

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Honey and Yogurt Mixture Can Help Treat Candidiasis During Pregnancy

Bee-Honey and Yogurt: A Novel Mixture for Treating Patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis During Pregnancy
Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2012 Feb 8


To evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates of a novel mixture consisting of Bee-honey and yogurt compared to local antifungal agents for treating patients with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) during pregnancy.


This is a prospective comparative study which included 129 patients with VVC during pregnancy. The participants were allocated into study group (n = 82) who received a mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt vaginally and control group (n = 47) who received local anti-fungal agents. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates and the side-effects of both modes of therapy.


The clinical cure rate was significantly higher in the study than the control group (87.8 vs. 72.3%, respectively) while the mycological cure rate was higher in the control than the study group (91.5 vs. 76.9%, respectively). Both types of therapy were favorably tolerated by most of the patients. Side effects were reported only in 24.3 and 29.7% of patients in group I and II, respectively (p < 0.05).


The mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt produced a high clinical cure rate and a reasonable mycological cure rate. It can be used as a complementary or an alternative to antifungal agents especially in patients with VVC during pregnancy.

Friday, February 17, 2012

Propolis Can Be Used to Store Detached Teeth

Effect of Propolis on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts
Endodontology, Volume 112, Issue 6, December 2011, Pages 843–848

The most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth are extraoral dry time and storage media used before replantation. Studies have analyzed different storage media to determine the ideal solution to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability.

Propolis has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and has been previously suggested as a storage medium. The purpose of this study was to assess not only cell viability but also physiological health of PDL cells after exposure to propolis. PDL cells were exposed to different concentrations of propolis or Hanks balanced salt solution, and the apoptotic levels were determined using apoptosis assay and flow cytometry. Additional cell viability and proliferation were analyzed by XXT assay in dry and wet conditions.

Propolis not only decreased apoptosis but also increased the metabolic activity and proliferation of PDL cells.

This study suggests that propolis is a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Bee Venom Component Used to Help Find Targeted Therapy for Liver Fibrosis

Structural Analysis of Secretory Phospholipase A(2) from Clonorchis sinensis: Therapeutic Implications for Hepatic Fibrosis
J Mol Model, 2012 Jan 4

Hepatic fibrosis is a common complication of the infection by the parasite, Clonorchis sinensis. There is a high incidence of this disease in the Asian countries with an increased risk of conversion to cancer. A secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzyme from the parasite is implicated in the pathology. This is an attractive drug target in the light of extensive structural characterization of this class of enzyme.

In this study, the structure of the enzyme was modeled based on its sequence homology to the group III bee venom PLA(2). On analysis, the overall structure essentially is comprised of three helices, two sets of β-wings and an elongated C-terminal extension. The structure is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The structure is comprised of a calcium binding loop, active site and a substrate binding hydrophobic channel. The active site of the enzyme shows the classical features of PLA(2) with the participation of the three residues: histidine-aspartic acid-tyrosine in hydrogen bond formation.

This is an interesting variation from the house keeping group III PLA(2) enzyme of human which has a histidine-aspartic acid and phenylalanine arrangement at the active site. This difference is therefore an important structural parameter that can be exploited to design specific inhibitor molecules against the pathogen PLA(2).

Likewise, there are certain unique structural features in the hydrophobic channel and the putative membrane binding surface of the PLA(2) from Clonorchis sinensis that not only help understand the mechanism of action but also provide knowledge for a targeted therapy of liver fibrosis caused by the parasite.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Bee Products Used to Boost Fertility

BeeFertile Product Gives Hope to Couples Struggling with Infertility
By Beverly Storrs, The Universe, 2/7/2012

When one couple started having troubles with fertility, they never thought ingesting a formula with bee products would turn their troubles into a family.

Josh Bellows and Chavah Bellows, co-founders of Hive Naturals, created BeeFertile from an old family formula using bee products to help couples struggling with fertility to increase their chances of having a child.

They said the main thing that sets this fertility supplement apart from the others is their use of bee products.

“The royal jelly in our product makes us completely unique,” Chavah Bellows said. “It is a very powerful combination with the pollen and honey.”

Royal jelly is a secretion from bees. The bees feed royal jelly to the queen bee throughout her life for her to be fertile…

Monday, February 13, 2012

Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Bee-Collected Pollen Correlated with Phenolic Content

Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil
Molecules, 2012, 17(2), 1652-1664

The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November) from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil).

Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02) were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD.

The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside.

The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g.

Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.

Sunday, February 12, 2012

Propolis in Diet of Patients May Boost Anti-Cancer Therapies

Assessing the Anti-Tumour Properties of Iraqi Propolis in vitro and in vivo
Food Chem Toxicol, 2012 Jan 28. [Epub ahead of print]

The study was designed to evaluate anti-tumour properties of Iraqi propolis collected from Mosul region (M) on HL-60 and HCT-116 cell lines and on HCT-116 in vivo.

M induced an inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HL-60 and colony potential of HCT-116 cells. The apoptosis in HL-60 cells was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax, while in HCT-116 cells, necrotic features were observed; size of cells was dramatically increased by swelling of cytoplasm and loss of membrane integrity, cell rupture and release of cellular contents.

Analysis of BrdU/DNA cell cycle in both cell lines showed that M induced cell cycle perturbations in both BrdU positive and BrdU negative cells. The exposure of HL-60 to M caused γ-H2AX in a dose dependent manner and was associated with induction of apoptosis. The experiments in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice showed that oral administration of propolis at doses that caused no detectable toxicity was associated with a decrease in mitotic cells and an increase in endoreduplications, increased p53 and decreased Ki-67 expression of cells in tumor sections.
This study provides the rationale to investigate the potential beneficial effect of propolis in the diet of patients receiving anti-cancer therapies.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

Bee Venom Therapy After Care Instructions

Chung Institute

1. Most patients experience between two and five days of symptoms after Bee Venom Therapy (B.V.T.) while others may have some symptoms that last up to 2 weeks. These symptoms may include itching, swelling, redness and warmth in the area that has been stung. This type of reaction is not cause for alarm. Swelling of an entire limb (arm or leg) may occur but it is not a cause for alarm unless the circulation to the foot or hand is compromised by external wrap or cast. Use ice, elevate and rest, it may take two to four days for this type of reaction to subside and the next treatment will be done with a lesser dose of bee venom, but treatment should not be discontinued. Hives, swollen lips or tongue or difficulty breathing do warrant immediate treatment.

2. To help minimize the discomfort after treatment, apply ice, calamine (not caladryl) lotion, Vitamin E oil, aloe vera, sunburn lotion with Benzocaine, or even toothpaste to the affected area. If, despite these measures, the discomfort, especially itching, is still severe and is interfering with your life (sleep, etc.), you can take 25 mg Benadryl and speak to your doctor about a prescription for a topical Lidocaine ointment or patches. Gel cold packs are available for purchase at any good pharmacy.

3. To maximize the healing potential of B.V.T. we recommend nutritional supplements...

Friday, February 10, 2012

Study Completed: Bee Venom Acupuncture for the Treatment of Frozen Shoulder

Sponsor: Kyunghee University Medical Center
Collaborator: Kyung Hee University Gangdong Hospital


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of combined bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and physiotherapy (PT) on frozen shoulder, and whether if the effect of BVA is dose effective.

Procedure: 1:10,000 bee venom (BV) acupuncture
Procedure: 1:30,000 bee venom (BV) acupuncture
Procedure: normal saline injection
Procedure: physiotherapy

Study Design:

Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment

Official Title:

Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study of Bee Venom Therapy on Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder

Primary Outcome Measures: •the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) [ Time Frame: Changes from baseline in SPADI at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures: •Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain intensity [ Time Frame: Changes from baseline in VAS at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

•passive Range of Motion (pROM) [ Time Frame: Changes from baseline in pROM at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
The 4 motions (abduction, forward flexion, extension, and external rotation) will be checked.

Thursday, February 09, 2012

Honey Effective in Treating Pressure Ulcers in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

Use of Medihoney as a Non-Surgical Therapy for Chronic Pressure Ulcers in patients with Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal Cord, 50, 165-169 (February 2012)

Study design:

Prospective, observational study of 20 spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients with chronic pressure ulcers (PUs) using Medihoney.


To determine the effects of Medihoney by bacterial growth, wound size and stage of healing in PUs.


We treated 20 SCI adult patients with chronic PUs using Medihoney. In all, 7 patients (35%) were female, and 13 (65%) were male. The average patient age was 48.7 years (30–79). In all, 6 patients (30%) were tetraplegic and 14 (70%) were paraplegic. Also, 5 patients (25%) had grade IV ulcers and 15 patients (75%) had grade III ulcers according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel.


After 1 week of treatment with Medihoney, all swabs were void of bacterial growth. Overall 18 patients (90%) showed complete wound healing after a period of 4 weeks, and the resulting scars were soft and elastic. No negative effects were noted from the treatment using Medihoney. No blood sugar level derailment was documented.


The medical-honey approach to wound care must be part of a comprehensive conservative surgical wound-care concept. Our study indicates the highly valuable efficacy of honey in wound management and infection control as measured by bacterial growth, wound size and healing stage.

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

Royal Jelly Lipid Component is Unique Modulator of IFN-γ-Mediated Cellular Responses

Inhibition of Interferon-γ-Induced Nitric Oxide Production by 10-Hydroxy-Trans-2-Decenoic Acid Through Inhibition of Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 Induction
Cellular Immunology, Volume 273, Issue 1, 2012, Pages 73–78

10-Hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) is a major lipid component of royal jelly, a honey bee secretion used to nourish the queen bee and young larvae.

In this study, we examined the effect of 10H2DA on interferon (IFN)-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. IFN-γ-induced NO production and activation of the inducible NO synthase promoter were significantly inhibited by 10H2DA. IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 was not affected by 10H2DA. In contrast, IFN-γ-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation were inhibited by 10H2DA. IFN-γ-mediated induction of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-8, but not IRF-1, was also inhibited by 10H2DA. IFN-γ-induced TNF-α production followed by activation of NF-κB is known to be essential for NO production.

Together, 10H2DA inhibited IFN-γ-induced NO production by inhibiting IRF-8 induction and TNF-α production. 10H2DA might modulate IFN-γ-mediated cellular responses by inhibiting the induction of IRF-8 and IRF-8-dependent genes.


► 10H2DA is a major lipid component of royal jelly. ► 10H2DA inhibited IFN-γ-induced NO production. ► IFN-γ-induced NF-κB, but not STAT1, activation was inhibited by 10H2DA. ► 10H2DA inhibited NF-κB activation via inhibition of IRF-8 and TNF-α induction. ► 10H2DA is a unique modulator of IFN-γ-mediated cellular responses.

Tuesday, February 07, 2012

Propolis Modulates Immune/Inflammatory Response

The Effects of Propolis and its Isolated Compounds on Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages
Phytother Res, 2012 Jan 25

Since propolis and phenolic compounds, such as cinnamic and coumaric acids, have several biological properties, their immunomodulatory effect on cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) was investigated.

Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were incubated with propolis, coumaric and cinnamic acids in different concentrations and the concentrations that inhibited cytokine production were tested before or after macrophage challenge with LPS, to evaluate a possible immunomodulatory action.

Propolis and the acids stimulated IL-1β production, while IL-6 production was significantly inhibited after incubation with propolis (5, 50 and 100 µg/well), coumaric and cinnamic acids (50 and 100 µg/well). In LPS-challenge protocols, inhibitory concentrations of cinnamic and coumaric acids after LPS incubation prevented efficiently its effects on IL-6 production, whereas propolis inhibited LPS effects both before and after its addition.

Propolis, coumaric and cinnamic acids (50 and 100 µg/well) inhibited IL-10 production as well. Both acids showed a similar inhibitory activity on IL-10 production when added after LPS challenge, while propolis counteracted LPS action when added before and after LPS incubation.

Propolis modulated the immune/inflammatory response, depending on the concentration. Its efficiency may occur due to the synergistic effect of its compounds, and cinnamic and coumaric acids may be involved in the action of propolis on cytokine production.

Monday, February 06, 2012

Red Propolis May Help Block Tumor Growth

Suppression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 α Contributes to the Antiangiogenic Activity of Red Propolis Polyphenols in Human Endothelial Cells
J Nutr, 2012 Jan 25

Polyphenol-enriched fractions from natural sources have been proposed to interfere with angiogenesis in pathological conditions. We recently reported that red propolis polyphenols (RPP) exert antiangiogenic activity. However, molecular mechanisms of this activity remain unclear.

Here, we aimed at characterizing molecular mechanisms to explain the impact of RPP on endothelial cells (EC) physiology. We used in vitro and ex and in vivo models to test the hypothesis that RPP inhibit angiogenesis by affecting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF1α) stabilization in EC. RPP (10 mg/L) affected angiogenesis by reducing migration and sprouting of EC, attenuated the formation of new blood vessels, and decreased the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into CD31 positive cells.

Moreover, RPP (10 mg/L) inhibited hypoxia- or dimethyloxallylglycine-induced mRNA and protein expression of the crucial angiogenesis promoter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a time-dependent manner. Under hypoxic conditions, RPP at 10 mg/L, supplied for 1-4 h, decreased HIF1α protein accumulation, which in turn attenuated VEGF gene expression. In addition, RPP reduced the HIF1α protein half-life from ~58 min to 38 min under hypoxic conditions.

The reduced HIF1α protein half-life was associated with an increase in the von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL)-dependent proteasomal degradation of HIF1α. RPP (10 mg/L, 4 h) downregulated Cdc42 protein expression. This caused a corresponding increase in pVHL protein levels and a subsequent degradation of HIF1α.

In summary, we have elucidated the underlying mechanism for the antiangiogenic action of RPP, which attenuates HIF1α protein accumulation and signaling.

Sunday, February 05, 2012

Brazilian Propolis Protects Against Liver Damage

Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis Against Hepatic Oxidative Damage in Rats with Water-immersion Restraint Stress
Phytother Res, 2012 Feb 1

In the present study we examined the protective effect of Brazilian propolis against hepatic oxidative damage in rats with water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) in comparison with that of vitamin E (VE).

Fasted rats orally received Brazilian green propolis ethanol extract (BPEE; 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg), VE (250 mg/kg) or vehicle at 30 min before the onset of WIRS. Exposure of vehicle-treated rats to 6 h of WIRS caused liver cell damage, judging from the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferease, increased hepatic lipid peroxide, NO(x) contents and myeloperoxidase activity, and decreased hepatic non-protein SH, ascorbic acid contents and superoxide dismutase activity.

Preadministration of BPEE (50 or 100 mg/kg) or VE to the stressed rats protected against the hepatic damage and attenuated the increased hepatic lipid peroxide and NO(x) contents and myeloperoxidase activity and the decreased hepatic non-protein SH and ascorbic acid contents and superoxide dismutase activity.

These protective effects of BPEE (50 mg/kg) were greater than those of BPEE (100 mg/kg) and were almost equal to those of VE.

These results indicate that BPEE protects against hepatic oxidative damage in rats exposed to WIRS possibly through its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties such as VE.

Saturday, February 04, 2012

Manuka Honey Can Help Treat Wounds Containing Strep

Manuka Honey Inhibits the Development of Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilms and Causes Reduced Expression of Two Fibronectin Binding Proteins
Microbiology, 2012 Jan 31

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is always of clinical significance in wounds where it can initiate infection, destroy skin grafts and persist as a biofilm.

Manuka honey has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and its use in the clinical setting is beginning to gain acceptance with the continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inadequacy of established systemic therapies; novel inhibitors may affect clinical practice.

In this study, the effect of manuka honey on S. pyogenes (M28) was investigated in vitro with planktonic and biofilm cultures using MIC, MBC, microscopy and aggregation efficiency. Bactericidal effects were found in both planktonic cultures and biofilms, although higher concentrations of manuka honey were needed to inhibit biofilms. Abrogation of adherence and intercellular aggregation was observed. Manuka honey permeated 24 h established biofilms of S. pyogenes, resulting in significant cell death and dissociation of cells from the biofilm.

Sublethal concentrations of manuka honey effectively prevented the binding of S. pyogenes to the human tissue protein fibronectin, but did not inhibit binding to fibrinogen. The observed inhibition of fibronectin binding confirmed by a reduction in the expression of genes encoding two major fibronectin-binding streptococcal surface proteins, Sof and SfbI.

These findings indicate that manuka honey has potential in the topical treatment of wounds containing S. pyogenes.

Friday, February 03, 2012

Manuka Honey's Superbug-Fighting Properties Hailed After Welsh Study

By Madeleine Brindley, Health Editor, WalesOnline, Jan 31 2012

Research by Welsh scientists suggests “miracle” manuka honey can fight and prevent bacteria that makes wounds hard to heal.

The latest results add to the growing evidence showing how manuka honey dressings are effective in treating wounds and combating super-bugs, such as MRSA.

But researchers at Cardiff Metropolitan University, which is the forefront of such work, have advised people to only use medical grade manuka honey on wounds and not the edible forms.

The latest study, by Dr Sarah Maddocks, has found manuka honey is effective against the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes, which can make wounds hard to treat.

Although it is a normal skin bacteria, when Streptococcus pyogenes infects wounds it can clump together into a biofilm, or barrier, which means antibiotics are ineffective.

Dr Maddocks said: “People with this bacteria quite often find that the wound doesn’t heal properly. The biofilm makes them especially difficult to treat with antimicrobials because the film offers a layer of extra protection.

“We have grown these biofilms in the laboratory and found the manuka honey kills off some of the bacteria but we’ve also found that it can inhibit the growth of these biofilms.”

Dr Maddocks’ study, which is published today in the online version of the Society for General Microbiology’s journal Microbiology, show very small concentrations of manuka honey prevented the development of a biofilm and treating established biofilms with honey for just two hours killed up to 85% of bacteria within them…

Thursday, February 02, 2012

Honey Protects Against Cigarette Smoke Induced-Impaired Sexual Behavior

Protective Effect of Honey Against Cigarette Smoke Induced-Impaired Sexual Behavior and Fertility of Male Rats
Toxicol Ind Health, 2012 Jan 24

Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction and impaired fertility in males. The aim of this study was to determine the potential protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on sexual behavior and fertility of male rats.

Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 rats/group) as control, honey (H), CS and H plus CS (H + CS) groups. Rats in control and CS groups received oral administration of distilled water daily while rats in H and H + CS groups received honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage. Rats in CS and H + CS groups were also exposed to CS for 8 min 3 times/day. From 10 to 13 weeks of treatment, each male rat was cohabited with 3 untreated female rats for sexual behavioral and reproductive performance studies.

Honey significantly increased the percentages of rats achieving intromission and ejaculation as well as increased mating and fertility indexes of male rats exposed to CS. Thus, honey has a protective effect against CS-induced impaired sexual behavior and fertility in male rats.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

Honey Dressing Better Than Tradition Burn Treatment

Honey Dressing Versus Silver Sulfadiazene Dressing for Wound Healing in Burn Patients: A Retrospective Study
J Cutan Aesthet Surg, 2011 Sep;4(3):183-7


The aim was to evaluate the effect of honey dressing and silver sulfadiazene (SSD) dressing on wound healing in burn patients.


We retrospectively reviewed the records of 108 patients (14-68 years of age), with first and second degree burns of less than 50% of the total body surface area admitted to our institution, over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Fifty-one patients were treated with honey dressings and 57 with SSD. Time elapsed since burn, site, percentage, degree and depth of burns, results of culture sensitivity at various time intervals, duration of healing, formation of post-treatment hypertrophic scar, and/or contracture were recorded and analyzed.


The average duration of healing was 18.16 and 32.68 days for the honey and SSD group, respectively. Wounds of all patients reporting within 1 h of burns became sterile with the honey dressing in less than 7 days while there was none with SSD. All wounds treated with honey became sterile within 21 days while for SSD-treated wounds, this figure was 36.5%. A complete outcome was seen in 81% of all patients in the "honey group" while in only 37% patients in the "SSD group."


Honey dressings make the wounds sterile in less time, enhance healing, and have a better outcome in terms of hypertropic scars and postburn contractures, as compared to SSD dressings.