Monday, December 31, 2018

Tualang Honey and Anastrozole More Effective Than Anastrozole Alone in Decreasing Breast BPE in Breast Cancer Patients

Tualang honey adjunct with anastrozole improve parenchyma enhancement of breast tissue in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

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Integr Med Res. 2018 Dec;7(4):322-327


To investigate whether the combination of anastrozole and Tualang honey (T honey) influences background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of postmenopausal women with breast cancer.


A total of 30 patients were recruited and randomly divided into control (anastrozole 1 mg daily) and intervention (anastrozole 1 mg + T honey 20 g daily). The BPE of the contralateral breast before and six months following treatment was compared using the sign test.


There was a decrease in BPE in 10% of the women (p = 0.317) who received only anastrozole, which resulted in a change of BPE category from moderate to mild. However, the combination of anastrozole and T honey evoked a decrease in BPE in 42% of the patients (p = 0.034).


The combination of T honey and anastrozole maybe more efficacious than anastrozole alone in decreasing breast BPE in breast cancer patients. These findings support the medicinal value of T honey as an adjuvant treatment to anastrozole.

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Royal Jelly Component Boosts Stem Cell Renewal

Honey bee Royalactin unlocks conserved pluripotency pathway in mammals

Nat Commun. 2018; 9: 5078

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Royal jelly is the queen-maker for the honey bee Apis mellifera, and has cross-species effects on longevity, fertility, and regeneration in mammals. Despite this knowledge, how royal jelly or its components exert their myriad effects has remained poorly understood.

Using mouse embryonic stem cells as a platform, here we report that through its major protein component Royalactin, royal jelly can maintain pluripotency by activating a ground-state pluripotency-like gene network. We further identify Regina, a mammalian structural analog of Royalactin that also induces a naive-like state in mouse embryonic stem cells.

This reveals an important innate program for stem cell self-renewal with broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate across species.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Royal Jelly Helps Treat Fatigue and Anorexia

Oral Intake of Royal Jelly Has Protective Effects Against Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Toxicity in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Medicines (Basel). 2018 Dec 20;6(1). pii: E2

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Background: Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are still recommended as the standard therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the high frequency of adverse events is a weakness of this therapy. Because royal jelly (RJ) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, we assessed its protective effects on TKI-induced toxicities in RCC patients.

Methods: We enrolled 33 patients with advanced RCC who were assigned to start TKI therapy in combination with a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled RJ trial consisting of a placebo group with 17 subjects and an RJ group with 16 subjects.

Results: Fatigue and anorexia frequencies in the RJ group were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.003 and 0.015, respectively). A statistically significant correlation between RJ and fatigue or anorexia was detected in sunitinib-treated patients. The dose reduction- or discontinuation-free periods were significantly longer (p = 0.013) in the RJ group than in the placebo group. Furthermore, similar observations were made in sunitinib-treated patients (p = 0.016).

Conclusions: Our clinical trial showed that RJ exerted protective effects against TKI-induced fatigue and anorexia and lowered TKI dose reduction or discontinuation. Hence, RJ is beneficial for maintaining the quality of life and medication compliance in TKI-treated RCC patients.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

Royal Jelly Protects Cells From High Glucose Levels (Diabetes)

Distinct Effects of Royal Jelly on Human Endothelial Cells Under High Glucose Condition

Iran J Pharm Res. 2018 Fall;17(4):1361-1370

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To assess different effects of royal Jelly in protecting the human endothelial cells from high glucose level, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to various concentrations of royal jelly, from 0.625 to 10 mg/mL, at the presence of 5 and 30 mM glucose contents over a course of 72 h.

In addition to cell viability assessment by conventional MTT assay, we also analyzed the feature of stemness by expression of Sox-2 and CD133 factors. Moreover, fatty acid profile, the expression of autophagy-related factor, namely microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 and activity of metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and were investigated. Royal jelly supplementation at the concentrations lower than 2.5 mg/mL did not influence the survival rate of cells and partially blunted the cytotoxic effects of 30 mM glucose. The expression of CD133 and Sox-2 factors were increased by royal jelly alone. Interestingly, an up-regulated expression of Sox-2 (58.8 ± 4%) coincided with a reduction in the levels of CD133 (15.1 ± 8.3%) in the combined treatment.

We notified that the contents of palmitate and trans-palmitate as well as linoleate decreased by 30 mM glucose content while cis-palmitate levels increased when RJ returned them to near-normal levels (p < 0.05). The expression of autophagy marker was prominently induced in the presence of royal jelly in both conditions (p < 0.05).

The glucose-induced activity of metalloproteinases was also reduced. Royal jelly is able to attenuate the abnormal status of 30 mM glucose condition in endothelial cells by different mechanisms.

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

Moroccan Propolis Shows Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity

Moroccan Propolis: A Natural Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antibiofilm against Staphylococcus aureus with No Induction of Resistance after Continuous Exposure

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 Nov 12;2018:9759240

This study was performed to evaluate the total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of twenty-four propolis samples from different regions of Morocco. In addition, two samples were screened regarding the antibacterial effect against four Staphylococcus aureus strains. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectra (GC-MS) analysis was done for propolis samples used in antibacterial tests. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC, MBC) were determined.

The potential to acquire the resistance after sequential exposure of bacterial strains and the impact of adaptation to propolis on virulence using the Galleria mellonella were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of propolis extract on the bacterial adherence ability and its ability to inhibit the quorum sensing activity were also examined. Among the twenty-four extracts studied, the samples from Sefrou, Outat el Haj, and the two samples marketed in Morocco were the best for scavenging DPPH, ABTS, NO, peroxyl, and superoxide radicals as well as in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide. A strong correlation was found between the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities.

Propolis extract at the MIC value (0.36 mg/mL) significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the virulence potential of S. aureus ATCC 6538 and the MRSA strains without leading to the development of resistance in the sequence of continuous exposure. It was able to impair the bacterial biofilm formation.

The results have revealed that sample 1 reduces violacein production in a concentration dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. This extract has as main group of secondary metabolites flavonoids (31.9%), diterpenes (21.5%), and phenolic acid esters (16.5%).

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Propolis Helps Treat Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers)

Propolis-based niosomes as oromuco-adhesive films: A randomized clinical trial of a therapeutic drug delivery platform for the treatment of oral recurrent aphthous ulcers

Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 21;8(1):18056

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Oromuco-adhesive films for buccal delivery of Propolis extract (PPE) entrapped in niosomes, were prepared to treat oral recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU). PPE was investigated for antimicrobial compounds. Niosomes composed of span60 and cholesterol were evaluated for particles size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release.

The formed oromuco-adhesive films containing niosomal PPE were evaluated for swelling, mucoadhesion and elasticity. 24 patients suffering from RAU were divided equally into medicated and placebo groups and participated in this study to examine the onset of ulcer size reduction, complete healing and pain relief. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin and galangin as antimicrobial flavonoids with total content of 158.7 ± 0.15 µg quercetin equivalents and phenolic content of 180.8 ± 0.11 µg gallic acid equivalents/mg. Multilamellar niosomes of 176-333 nm displayed entrapment efficiency of 91 ± 0.48%, PDI of 0.676 and zeta potential of -4.99. In vitro release after 8 h from niosomal dispersion and films were 64.05% and 29.09 ± 0.13% respectively. Clinical results revealed duration of film adherence from 2-4 h in the two groups.

The onset of ulcer size reduction in medicated group was attained within second and third day, complete healing was achieved within first 10 days of treatment and pain relief lasted for more than 4-5 h, in contrast to the placebo group. This oromuco-adhesive films which offer controlled and targeting drug delivery can be proposed as a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of oral recurrent aphthous ulcer.

Sunday, December 23, 2018

Royal Jelly Shows Antibacterial Activity

10-HDA, A Major Fatty Acid of Royal Jelly, Exhibits pH Dependent Growth-Inhibitory Activity Against Different Strains of Paenibacillus larvae

Molecules. 2018 Dec 7;23(12). pii: E3236

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Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is a bacterial pathogen causing American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious disease of honeybee larvae. The food of young larvae could play an important role in the resistance of larvae against AFB. It contains antibacterial substances produced by honeybees that may inhibit the propagation of the pathogen in larval midguts.

In this study, we identified and investigated the antibacterial effects of one of these substances, trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), against P. larvae strains including all Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) genotypes. Its inhibitory activities were studied by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). It was found that 10-HDA efficacy increases substantially with decreasing pH; up to 12-fold differences in efficacy were observed between pH = 5.5 and pH = 7.2. P. larvae strains showed different susceptibility to 10-HDA; up to 2.97-fold differences existed among various strains with environmentally important ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes. Germinating spores of the pathogen were generally more susceptible to 10-HDA than vegetative cells.

Our findings suggest that 10-HDA could play significant role in conferring antipathogenic activity to larval food in the midguts of young larvae and contribute to the resistance of individual larvae to P. larvae.

Saturday, December 22, 2018

Propolis, Honey Component May Help Treat Age-Related High Cholesterol, High Blood Sugar, Metabolic Disorders

Chrysin attenuates inflammatory and metabolic disorder indices in aged male rat.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jan;109:1120-1125

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Advanced age is a major risk factor for metabolic disorders. Accelerated inflammatory processes with increased age can contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances.

Chrysin is a natural flavonoid ingredient of honey and propolis. Chrysin has been effective in decreasing cholesterol and glucose levels preventing metabolic disturbances.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chrysin against age-associated inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia.

Male Wistar rats (2, 10, and 20 month-old) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with chrysin (20 mg/kg) for 30 days. The findings showed elevated inflammatory cytokines, glucose, and lipid parameters in the sera of aged rats when compared with young ones. However, chrysin treatment ameliorated these alterations. Furthermore, chrysin reduced the levels of adiponectin, HDL-C, and insulin in 20 month-old rats.

The current study showed that chrysin was effective in attenuating age-related lipid abnormalities, glucose elevation, and inflammation.

Friday, December 21, 2018

Index of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Diabetic, and Anti-Cancer Activities of Honey

A New Approach for Indexing Honey for Its Heath/Medicinal Benefits: Visualization of the Concept by Indexing Based on Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

Medicines (Basel). 2018 Dec 17;5(4)

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Background: The goals of the current study were to address a new concept termed a health benefits' index (HBI) and to verify the type of correlation between the pricing of honey and its HBI/medicinal properties. Diverse types of honey from different origins and places were investigated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

Methods: We have utilized a modified protocol of the DPPH assay for measuring free radical scavenging and the microdilution test for the determination of antibacterial/antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). MICs were determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Candida albicans microorganisms. Employing a "combined benefits approach" enabled us to attach to each honey type a unique number of HBI that correlate with honey health and medicinal values.

Results: The various types of honey demonstrated significant but variable antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Types of wildflower-labeled honey were found to have a wide range of HBI values and medicinal properties, probably due to their containing different nectar contents/phytochemicals. Moreover, an inconsiderable correlation was detected between the market prices of different types of honey and their HBIs.

Conclusions: The proposed index of health benefits could be recalculated/updated following measurement of more and more medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. This index could be used as an effective tool for consumers of honey to evaluate the real value of the purchased product.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Indonesian Stingless Bee Propolis Has Potential as Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drug

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Tetragronula species from Indonesia

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Available online 17 December 2018

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Anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit inflammation, particularly those classified as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several studies have reported that propolis has both anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory effects.

In this study, we investigated the bioactive compound and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of both smooth and rough propolis from Tetragronula sp. To further identify anti-inflammatory markers in propolis, LC-MS/MS was used, and results were analyzed by Mass Lynx 4.1.

Rough and smooth propolis of Tetragonula sp. were microcapsulated with maltodextrin and arabic gum. Propolis microcapsules at dose 25 - 200 mg/kg were applied for carrageenan-induced rat’s paw-inflammation model. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis statistical tests. LC-MS/MS experiments identified seven anti-inflammatory compounds, including [6]-dehydrogingerdione, alpha-tocopherol succinate, adhyperforin, 6-epiangustifolin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, kurarinone, and xanthoxyletin.

Our results indicated that smooth propolis at 50 mg/kg inhibited inflammation to the greatest extent, followed by rough propolis at a dose of 25 mg/kg. SPM and RPM with the dose of 25 mg/kg had inflammatory inhibition value of 62.24% and 58.12%, respectively, which is comparable with the value 70.26% of sodium diclofenac with the dose of 135 mg/kg.

This study suggests that propolis has the potential candidate to develop as a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug.

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Microbes May Give Manuka Honey its Active Ingredient

Scientists delve into manuka flower microbes in bid to find honey's magic ingredient

Jamie Morton
Science Reporter, NZ Herald

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Our understanding of gut health has ballooned as we've learned more about the communities of beneficial bugs that live within each of us.

We now know this microbiome contributes to everything from immunity and obesity to mental health.

Now scientists suspect microbes might also be what gives one of New Zealand's most lucrative exports, manuka honey, its active ingredient.

The native manuka plant acts as the substrate for the unique and valuable honey, which contains high levels of a compound called methylglyoxal.

This is better known to consumers around the world by the different systems that producers use to grade manuka honey – MGO or unique manuka factor, or UMF.

Methylglyoxal is formed from nectar rich in a substance called dihydroxyacetone, or DHA.

"We do not yet understand why some flowers on some manuka plants produce high levels of DHA and wonder if the micro-organisms in the flowers might contribute to this," said Dr Hayley Ridgway, a senior scientist at Plant & Food Research.

"Our previous work has shown that manuka is a plant for which microbes significantly impact growth and chemistry. We also know that DHA can be made by micro-organisms."

In a just-launched study, Ridgway and fellow researchers from Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research and Lincoln University aimed to find out if their theory was correct...

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Scleroderma

Bee venom acupuncture for circumscribed morphea in a patient with systemic sclerosis: A case report

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Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Dec;97(49):e13404


Bee venom has been reported to demonstrate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental studies, but there remain questions regarding the clinical use of bee venom, especially for scleroderma. This case report shows the successful outcome of bee venom acupuncture for circumscribed morphea in a patient with systemic sclerosis, which is considered to be a rare condition.


A 64-year-old Korean woman had circular white areas (3 and 1 cm diameter) with severe itch in the right lateral iliac crest. Based on an initial diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (1 year prior to presentation at our clinic), she had been treated with painkillers, steroids, antitussive expectorants, and aspirin, with minimal effect on her recent skin symptoms.


In this study, the diagnosis of circumscribed morphea was based on localized skin symptoms of the patient with systemic sclerosis.


The patient visited Gachon University Korean Medical Hospital for treatment of topical skin symptoms. After being evaluated for bee venom compatibility, she was administered subcutaneous bee venom acupuncture along the margins of the patches (superficial circumscribed lesions) using the shallow surround needling method twice per week for 1 week and then once per week for the following 3 weeks.


Itch levels were evaluated before each treatment session: by her second visit, her itch had decreased from 8 to 3 on a 10-point numerical rating scale; by her sixth visit, her itch had decreased from 3 to 0. She did not experience adverse effects, and these improvements were maintained until the 2-month follow-up evaluation.


Bee venom treatment demonstrates the potential to serve as an effective localized therapy for circumscribed morphea.

Monday, December 17, 2018

Antiviral Activity of Propolis Comparable to Acyclovir Against Chicken Pox, Shingles Virus

Antiviral activity of propolis special extract GH 2002 against Varicella zoster virus in vitro

Pharmazie. 2018 Dec 1;73(12):733-736

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Propolis is a generic name for a biological substance produced by bees used for multiple purposes in folk medicine. Propolis special extract GH 2002 is crude propolis highly purified by a special procedure and freed from the accompanying substances like pollen, wax, resins.

The cytotoxic and antiherpetic effect of propolis extracts against Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was analysed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on lung fibroblasts with a CC50 of 380 μg/ml. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of GH 2002 propolis extract for VZV plaque formation was determined at 64 μg/ml. The propolis extract exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against VZV in viral suspension tests, infectivity was significantly reduced by 93.9 % and a direct concentration-dependent antiviral activity could be demonstrated.

In order to determine the mode of virus suppression by propolis, the extract was added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of propolis to uninfected cells (pretreatment cells) prior to infection or to infected cells (replication) during intracellular replication had no or only minor effect on virus multiplication.

However, propolis exhibited high anti-VZV activity when viruses were pretreated with propolis prior to infection thus indicating an unspecific interaction between the virus and propolis. The antiviral activity is comparable to acyclovir.

Sunday, December 16, 2018

Honey-Derived Lactobacillus Rhamnosus as Effective as Antibiotic in Eradication of H. pylori Infection, Cure of Gastritis (Gastric Ulcer, Stomach Cancer, Antibiotic Resistance)


Arq Gastroenterol. 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):279-282

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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been introduced by since 1983 by Marshal and Warren to play the main role in the pathophysiology of gastritis and gastric ulcers. Almost half of the world population1 is infected by H. pylori. Current therapeutic regimen against H. pylori includes the use of a proton pump inhibitor plus two or more antibiotics. However, the efficacy of this regimen is decreasing mainly due to antibiotic resistance and side effects of medications. This fact has resulted in public interest in other therapeutic options and the role of probiotics merits special attention in this regard.


This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of honey-derived Lactobacillus rhamnosus on H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation and gastro-intestinal infection in C57BL/6 Mice.


The 24 C57BL/6 Mice were randomly divided into three groups of eight mice each. All the mice were fed with 1cc suspension containing 5*1010 CFU/ mL of ATCC43504 strains of H. pylori for 3 consecutive days, twice daily via polyethylene gavage tubes. At the end of 4th week, infection with H. pylori was confirmed with stool Ag (ELISA) and following sacrifice of one mouse from each group, histopathologic study confirmed gastritis. The groups were subjected to different therapies as stated, 1: without Bismuth (Bi), Omeprazole (Om) and L. rhamnosus prescription, 2: Bi, Om and Clarithromycin (Cl) and 3: Bi, Om plus 1cc of suspension of 109 CFU/mL of L. rhamnosus. After 2 weeks, the stool was analyzed for Ag and the mice were sacrificed for evaluation of histopathologic changes.


Treatment with L. rhamnosus group provided Zero titer of stool Ag and was associated with improved gastric inflammation in all subjects, similar to the clarithromycin group.


Honey-derived L. rhamnosus probiotics provides similar results as clarithromycin in terms of improvement of H. pylori infection and gastritis in C57BL/6 Mice model, without its cons of antibiotic resistance.

Saturday, December 15, 2018

Mexicans Use Bee Products to Treat Epilepsy, Arthritis, Pain, Burns, HIV, Leukemia, Inflammation

Mexicans switch to bee products as part of growing trend toward traditional medicine


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Alternative medicine is a growing industry in Mexico. Ancient remedies can provide natural ways to treat illnesses, while allowing Mexicans to connect to their heritage. CGTN’S Alasdair Baverstock reports on a the growing popularity of bee therapy.

Apitherapy is the treatment of illness with products that come from honeybees, particularly their venom, and in Mexico, it’s very popular. Estimates suggest some 60 percent of Mexicans are proponents of indigenous medicine, and where there’s honey being produced, there are bee sting clinics. Leticia Solis works in one such facility. She’s trained and certified by the Mexican apitherapy association.

“We use natural substances produced by bees, including honey, pollen, and royal jelly,” Solis said. “Mexico today has at least one apitherapist in every state, and the advantage we have is that it’s an all-round treatment, which can be used to help a wide variety of problems.”

Leticia’s patients suffer from various ailments, but all claim the treatment has helped.

“I suffered from regular epileptic fits,” said patient Luz Maria Paredes. “I’ve been coming here for three years, and I haven’t experienced an episode in two and a half years. I feel perfectly well.”

“I have arthritis that made movement painful,” said Jose Lerma. “It even hurt to turn my head from side to side. But I’ve been coming here for two years and now don’t I don’t need prescription medicine.”

According to scientific research, bee venom has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, but that may not be the extent of these insects’ benefits. The honey they produce is effective at healing burns, while propolis, the sealant bees produce to make their hives, shows promise fighting both the HIV virus and leukemia. Bee sting properties have intrigued rheumatologist Conrado Garcia, who was once skeptical about the treatment, but now says further investigation should be conducted...

Friday, December 14, 2018

Propolis Better at Treating Acne Than Antibacterial Cream

Treatment of acne with a combination of propolis, tea tree oil, and Aloe vera compared to erythromycin cream: two double-blind investigations

Published 13 December 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 175—181

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Introduction: Antibiotics that suppress Propionibacterium acnes are the standard treatment for acne but are becoming less effective, due to the appearance of antibiotic-resistant strains. Many plants are known to have innate antimicrobial action and can be used as alternatives to antibiotics; thus, it is necessary to prove their effectiveness in vivo. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-acne efficacy of a new cream based on three natural extracts, comparing it to erythromycin cream and placebo.

Patients and methods: Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were randomly divided into three groups: treated with cream containing 20% propolis, 3% “tea tree oil”, and 10% “Aloe vera” (PTAC) (n=20); or with 3% erythromycin cream (ERC) (n=20); or with placebo (n=20). At baseline, after 15 and 30 days, investigators evaluated response to treatment by counting acne lesions through noninvasive measurements and macro-photography.

Results: All the clinical and instrumental values studied were statistically different from placebo except for sebometry, pHmetry, and erythema index values, measured on healthy skin. Unlike in the placebo group, papular and scar lesions showed high erythema reduction after 15 and 30 days of PTAC and ERC application.

Conclusion: The PTAC formulation was better than ERC in reducing erythema scars, acne severity index, and total lesion count.

Thursday, December 13, 2018

Propolis Helps Reduce Complications of Diabetes in Pregnancy

Propolis improves pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Dec 5;18(1):324


This study assessed the effects of propolis alone or combined with insulin on maternal status, pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.


Forty female rats were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 8/group) i.e. non-DM (non-diabetes), DM (diabetes), DM + Propolis (diabetes on propolis orally); DM + Insulin (diabetes on insulin subcutaneously) and DM + Combined (diabetes on propolis and insulin) groups. Propolis and insulin were given at 300 mg/kg/day orally and 5.0 IU/kg/day subcutaneously, respectively, for 4 weeks.


Fasting blood glucose, conception period, implantation losses, foetal blood glucose and placental oxidative stress markers such as malonaldehyde and protein carbonyl were significantly higher while maternal weight gain, foetal body weight and total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in DM group compared with non-DM group. These changes were significantly improved in rats treated with propolis or insulin alone with greater significant effects in rats treated with both propolis and insulin.


This study may suggest the protective effects of propolis against DM-induced impaired pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress with greater effects when combined with insulin.

...In conclusion, this study may suggest the protective effects of propolis against DM-induced impaired pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress with greater effects when combined with insulin which could be partly due to the synergistic effect of some of its phytochemical constituents. Apart from supporting the traditional belief on the beneficial effect of propolis on health, further studies are suggested to determine its molecular mechanism of action and its possible role in protecting or reducing complications of DM in other organs.

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Propolis Extract Cures Fungal Nail Infections (Onychomycosis)

Propolis for the Treatment of Onychomycosis

Indian J Dermatol. 2018 Nov-Dec;63(6):515-517

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Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection, considered as a public health problem because it is contagious and it interferes with the quality of life. It has long and difficult treatment, with many side effects and high cost. Propolis extract (PE) is a potential alternative to conventional antifungal agents because it has low cost, accessibility, and low toxicity. Herein, we report the favorable response of PE in onychomycosis in three elderly patients...

In our in vitro experiments, PE was able to inhibit Candida spp. like other cases in the literature. In vivo, four nails were treated with PE of which two of them showed complete resolution. Culture was negative. The other two nails showed a reduction of over 50% of the lesion; however, fungi were still isolated. Based on the results obtained during in vitro studies as well as results obtained from tests performed after topical treatment, it can be concluded that propolis possesses antifungal potential and is a promising therapeutic option in cases of onychomycosis.

Tuesday, December 11, 2018

Manuka Honey May Help Treat Giardiasis and Trichomoniasis

Comparative effect of manuka honey on anaerobic parasitic protozoans with standard drug therapy under in vitro conditions: A preliminary study

Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Jul-Aug;50(4):197-203

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From the past five decades, metronidazole and tinidazole have been used for treating nonresistant and resistant giardiasis and trichomoniasis. However, due to the occurrence of drug resistance to standard therapy idealizes us to explore some additional therapies which is cost-effective, easy accessibility, and natural which has least side effects. Manuka honey obtained from Leptospermum scoparium is well known for its antibacterial and wound healing properties and is thought to be a better option as an additional therapy.


The present study was conducted to find out the effect of manuka honey on anaerobic protozoans that includes Giardia and Trichomonas under in vitro conditions in comparison to metronidazole and tinidazole.


Axenic culture of Giardia lamblia strain Portland 1 and Trichomonas vaginalis strain 413 was used for drug sensitivity assay to tinidazole, metronidazole, and manuka honey with the highest concentration of 17.1 μg/ml, 24.7 μg/ml, and 50%v/v by using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole). For this, head-to-head comparison has been done and IC 50 of the standard drug as well as manuka honey was calculated.


The result showed that percentage inhibition on the growth of both the parasites is dependent on concentration as well as exposure time of the drug. The calculated IC 50 was found to be 5.6%v/v and 1.5%v/v for manuka honey with respect to G. lamblia and T. vaginalis.


The present study suggests that manuka honey can be used as an additional therapy for the patient with giardiasis or trichomoniasis. However, in vivo study in the near future will elucidate more about the effectiveness of honey in treating parasitic infections.

Monday, December 10, 2018

Honey Effective as a Treatment in Otorhinolaryngology (rhinology, sinus, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, laryngology, oral mucositis in cancer patients, cough, upper respiratory infection, pain control, tonsillectomy)

Honey as a Treatment in Otorhinolaryngology: A Review by Subspecialty.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2018 Dec 2:3489418815188

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To provide an up-to-date review of honey's effectiveness and potential applications in otorhinolaryngology.


A literature search of the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted.


Sixty-three studies were identified within head and neck surgery (n = 23, 36%); pediatric otolaryngology (n = 18, 29%); rhinology, sinus, and skull base surgery (n = 11, 17%); otology (n = 6, 10%), facial plastic and reconstructive surgery (n = 3, 5%); and laryngology (n = 2, 3%). Studies included 6 meta-analyses, 44 randomized control trials, 5 case reports, and 8 animal models or in vitro studies. Of 55 clinical studies, 50 reported Level 1 evidence (prospective randomized control trials), and 5 reported Level 4 evidence (case series). The evidence level by subspecialty was: head and neck surgery (Level 1 n = 23), pediatrics (Level 1 n = 18), rhinology (Level 1 n = 7, level 4 n = 1), otology (Level 1 n = 1, Level 4 n = 3), facial plastics and reconstructive surgery (Level 4 n = 1), and laryngology (Level 1 n = 2).


Honey can be used for a variety of otolaryngology conditions. The highest quality meta-analyses support oral honey for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients, cough associated with upper respiratory infection in children, and pain control after tonsillectomy. Further research will likely justify broader applications.

Sunday, December 09, 2018

Propolis Helps Get Rid of Papillomas and Warts at Home

Bee glue / propolis

You will need:

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2 drops of 50% tincture of propolis

What to do:

Apply the propolis to the affected area.

Cover the wart with a cotton pad.

Lock the disk with a bandage

Repeat this twice a day.

Why it works:

In the wild, bee propolis protects beehives against infections and has antiviral properties and action of antibiotic. Found that propolis activates volochkovu gland and stimulates the immune system.

Saturday, December 08, 2018

Propolis Credited with Alleviating Symptoms of Tonsillitis

Entrepreneur builds bee product line into budding powerhouse

By Hank Schultz

A personal health crisis while traveling led entrepreneur Carly Stein to bee products, and she subsequently founded a thriving supplement and foods brand and has been recognized by a major business publication.

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Friday, December 07, 2018

Palestinian Thyme, Jujube Honey Show Bioactive, Antioxidant Activities

Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Palestinian honey samples

Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Sep 11;6(8):2056-2065

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Physicochemical characteristics, main minerals, and antioxidant activity were determined for Palestinian honey samples belonging to different floral and geographical origins. The features of the analyzed samples were within the established international standards for honey quality control. One clear exception was the hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) of the Ziziphus sample purchased from the Jericho region, which is the lowest city in the word characterized by a hot desert climate.

The observed HMF value was 81.86 ± 2.64 mg/kg being two folds the maximum allowed in honey samples (40 mg/kg). As a second objective of the present work, the parameters were divided into two groups with different discriminatory power. The assessed physicochemical parameters, and the antioxidant activities, specific to the botanical origin discrimination, were used to run the first PCA.

A strong correlation could be seen between the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activities despite the geographical origin of the samples. Thyme and Ziziphus samples were the best samples, while citrus sample presented the lowest activity. Regarding the geographical discrimination, Ash and mineral contents in addition to the electrical conductivity were used. The output PCA conserved high represent ability of the data in the two-first components being 82.72% and 9.60%.

A little discrimination between the samples produced in the north and those produced in the south of the country, but it was not perfect. The intervention of the botanical variability could be the reason.

Thursday, December 06, 2018

Royal Jelly Could Aid Human Stem Cell Therapies

A Compound that Makes Bees Into Queens Could also Aid Human Stem Cell Therapies

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By Anna Groves | December 5, 2018

Scientists have announced a breakthrough in stem cell research that could have major implications for medical treatments that involve regenerating human cells. And their discovery came from an unlikely source: royal jelly. It’s the same substance honey bees use to turn a common bee larvae into a queen.

Royal Jelly

A queen bee starts her life just like any other bee – a larva in the honey bee hive, taken care of by her siblings. But when it’s time for a new queen, this larva is pulled aside and fed copious amounts of royal jelly, a nutritious goop secreted by the hive’s nurse bees. This, rather than any genetic differences, is what makes her a queen.

This queen bee grows larger than the other bees in the hive, which means she ends up with substantially more cells in her body, despite being genetically similar to her sisters. Royal jelly is thought to increase her cell count by somehow triggering an increase in stem cells — cells that haven’t yet differentiated into specialized cells — early in her development.

Royal jelly is popular as a dietary supplement in many areas of the world. Though many of the claimed effects on human health are of dubious merit, a few have been supported by randomized controlled trials. The latter inspired researchers to examine what effects the jelly might have outside of a bee hive.

Now, a research team out of Stanford University has found that the active compound in royal jelly, royalactin, prevents stem cells from differentiating, or growing into mature versions of, say, muscle or skin cells. This means that as they continue to grow and multiply they create more stem cells, increasing their therapeutic potential.

Wednesday, December 05, 2018

Royal Jelly Research Could Propel Cure for Alzheimer’s

Researchers say similar protein to royalactin in humans builds up ‘self-renewal’ stem cells

The Guardian

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It is the mysterious substance that turns worker honeybees into queens and fills the shelves of health food shops which tout its unverified powers to fend off ageing, improve fertility and reinvigorate the immune system.

Whether royal jelly has genuine health benefits for humans is a matter for more research, but in a study scientists have cracked one of the most enduring puzzles surrounding the milky gloop: the secret behind its queen-maker magic.

The discovery promises to have an impact far beyond the niche field of melittology. Armed with the findings, scientists are now exploring potential new treatments for wounds and disorders such as muscle wastage and neurodegenerative disease.

Researchers at Stanford University found that the main active component in royal jelly, a protein called royalactin, activates a network of genes that bolsters the ability of stem cells to renew themselves. It means that, with royalactin, an organism can produce more stem cells to build and repair itself with.

“We have a very identifiable avenue through which royal jelly’s effects are carried out,” said Kevin Wang, who led the Stanford team. “It has this activity of keeping stem cells in a self-renewing state.”

Tuesday, December 04, 2018

Bangladeshi Propolis Shows Antioxidant, Anti-Pain Activity

Antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and analgesic properties of propolis from Bangladesh

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Food Biochemistry, Volume 42, Issue 5

October 2018

Propolis which is a natural resinous product from the honeybees, is becoming increasingly popular for its diverse therapeutic and industrial applications.

In this study, we report for the first time the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antinociceptive activities of propolis from Bangladesh (BDP). The antioxidant activities were measured by biochemical analyses while cytotoxicity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Analgesic activity was evaluated by tail immersion and acetic acid‐induced writhing models in mice. BDP contained higher concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reducing sugars, as compared to previous reports of propolis from several countries. BDP also exhibited higher free radical‐scavenging activities and a dose‐dependent reducing power activity indicating its superior antioxidant potential. Moreover, BDP extract was most toxic to brine shrimp nauplii, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 57.99 µg/mL and exhibited considerable antinociceptive activities which may be mediated via central and peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.

Practical applications

BDP is a honeybee product, becoming increasingly popular due its potential contributions to human health. BDP is a rich source of natural antioxidants which has the potential to be used to ameliorate oxidative stress disorders and has useful antinociceptive activities. It may be useful as potential therapeutic agents against cancer, pesticidal agents, and for other cytotoxic uses.

Monday, December 03, 2018

Royal Jelly May Boost Sperm Count (Infertility)

Royal jelly protection on flunixin meglumine-induced spermiotoxicity and testicular degeneration in mice

Pol J Vet Sci. 2018 Sep;21(3):497-506

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Current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of royal jelly on Flunixin me- glumine (FM)-induced spermiotoxicity related to sperm concentration, abnormal spermatozoa count and histopathological changes in mice testis. The subjects were divided into five groups according to FM and/or royal jelly intake: Control group; group 1, FM alone (25 mg/kg, im); group 2, combination of FM (25 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral); group 3, FM alone (50 mg/kg, im); and group 4, combination of FM (50 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral). The animals were fed once daily for 15 days and they were sacrificed last day. Epididymal sperm concentration and abnormal spermatozoa count were noted. Testicular histological findings were evaluated. On purpose, organization of each animal was graded according to Johnsen's scoring to assess the spermatogenesis relying on seminiferous tubule cross-section scores. Comparing to controls, FM administration caused a decrease in sperm concentration (p⟨0.05), an increase in total abnormal spermatozoa rates (p⟨0.05) and more degenerative changes in testes in mice. Royal jelly supplementation ameliorated both sperm concentration and abnormal spermato- zoa (p⟨0.05) comparing to the control group. In conclusion, we suggested that royal jelly might have protective effects in the FM-induced reductions in epididymal sperm concentration and in- crease in abnormal spermatozoa rate.

Sunday, December 02, 2018

Propolis Component Sensitizes Chemoresistant Gastric Cancer Cells to Anti-Cancer Drugs

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester potentiates gastric cancer cell sensitivity to doxorubicin and cisplatin by decreasing proteasome function

Anticancer Drugs. 2018 Nov 26

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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a major propolis component that possesses a variety of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer effects.

Herein, we investigated the effectiveness of CAPE on cytotoxicity of clinically used anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DXR) and cisplatin (CDDP), in parental and the drug-resistant cells of stomach (MKN45) and colon (LoVo) cancers. Concomitant treatment with CAPE potentiated apoptotic effects of DXR and CDDP against the parental cells. The treatment significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species elicited by DXR but did not affect the DXR-mediated accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde.

Intriguingly, treatment of parental MKN45 cells with CAPE alone reduced 26S proteasome-based proteolytic activities, in which a chymotrypsin-like activity was most affected. This effect of CAPE was the most prominent among those of eight flavonoids and nine cinnamic acid derivatives and was also observed in parental LoVo cells. In the DXR-resistant or CDDP-resistant cells, the chymotrypsin-like activity was highly up-regulated and significantly decreased by CAPE treatment, which sensitized the resistant cells to DXR and CDDP. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that CAPE treatment led to downregulation of five proteasome subunits (PSMB1-PSMB5) and three immunoproteasome subunits (PSMB8-PSMB10) in DXR-resistant MKN45 cells.

The results suggest that CAPE enhances sensitivity of these cancer cells and their chemoresistant cells to DXR and CDDP, most notably through decreasing proteasome function. Thus, CAPE may be valuable as an adjuvant for DXR or CDDP chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

Saturday, December 01, 2018

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Boost Traditional Parkinson's Disease Treatment


Available online 2 November 2018
In Press, Corrected Proof

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Bee venom acupuncture in addition to anti-Parkinsonian medications may improve activities of daily living and motor symptoms more than medication alone in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

Friday, November 30, 2018

Columbian Propolis May Help Treat Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)

The chemical composition and events related to the cytotoxic effects of propolis on osteosarcoma cells: A comparative assessment of Colombian samples

Phytother Res. 2018 Nov 28

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Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a type of bone cancer showing an aggressive biological behavior with metastatic progression. Because propolis potential for the development of new antitumoral drugs has been indicated, we evaluated the chemical composition of Colombian propolis samples and the mechanisms involved in their cytotoxic effects on OSA cells.

The chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity was measured. Cluster and principal components analysis were used to establish an association with their inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 ). Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry; mitochondrial membrane permeability and reactive oxygen species were evaluated by rhodamine 123 and DCFH-DA. Transwell assay was used to evaluate the invasiveness of propolis-treated cells. Samples were grouped: Cluster 1 contained diterpenes and benzophenones and showed the highest antiradical activity; Cluster 2 was characterized by triterpenes, fatty acid, and diterpenes. Usm contained diterpenes and triterpenes different of the other samples and Sil contained triterpenes and flavonoids.

Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane alteration, and suppression of cell invasion were the main mechanisms involved in the inhibition of OSA cells in vitro, suggesting the potential of Colombian propolis to discover new antitumor drugs.

Thursday, November 29, 2018

Bee Venom Component May Help Slow Progression of Alzheimer's Disease

Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates Alzheimer's disease pathology in Aβ vaccination treatment without inducing neuro-inflammation in a 3xTg-AD mouse model

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Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 26;8(1):17369

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau proteins.

Although vaccination against Aβ peptide results in a dramatic reduction in Aβ pathology in experimental mouse models, the initial clinical trial for an active Aβ vaccine was halted early due to the development of acute meningoencephalitis in 6% of the immunized patients, which likely involved a T-cell mediated pro-inflammatory response.

In this study, we aimed to determine whether bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) treatment would induce Tregs and ameliorate AD pathology without unwanted T cell-mediated inflammation.

First, we investigated the effects of bvPLA2 on the inflammatory infiltration caused by Aβ vaccination. Inflammatory aggregates of CD3+ T lymphocytes and macrophages were found in the brains and spinal cords of mice treated with Aβ. However, administration of bvPLA2 dramatically eliminated central nervous system inflammation following Aβ immunization.

In AD model mice (3xTg-AD mice), bvPLA2 administration significantly ameliorated cognitive deficits and reduced Aβ burdens in the brains of Aβ-vaccinated 3xTg-AD mice. Additionally, we examined brain glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography with 18F-2 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Cerebral glucose uptake was considerably higher in the brains of Aβ-vaccinated 3xTg-AD mice that received bvPLA2 than those that did not.

The present study suggests that the modulation of Treg populations via bvPLA2 treatment may be a new therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of AD in conjunction with Aβ vaccination therapy without an adverse inflammatory response.

Wednesday, November 28, 2018

Honey, Bee Bread, Royal Jelly Help Postmenopausal Women Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors (BMI, Blood Pressure, Fasting Blood Sugar)

Long-term effects of honey on cardiovascular parameters and anthropometric measurements of postmenopausal women

Complement Ther Med. 2018 Dec;41:154-160

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To investigate the long-term effects of Tualang Honey versus Honey Cocktail (mixture of honey, bee bread, and royal jelly) on cardiovascular markers and anthropometric measurements of postmenopausal women.


We conducted a randomised, double blinded, two-armed parallel study comparing 20 g/day of Tualang Honey versus 20 g/day Honey Cocktail among postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years. The cardiovascular parameters and anthropometrics measurements were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months of the intervention.


100 subjects were successfully randomised into the groups. There was a significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure from 77.92 mmHg at baseline to 73.45 mmHg at 12 months (F-statistic = 2.55, p-value = 0.047) in the Tualang Honey group compared to Honey Cocktail. There was also a significant decrease in the fasting blood sugar from 6.11 mmol/L at baseline to 5.71 mmol/L at 12 months (F-statistic = 4.03, p-value = 0.021) in the Tualang Honey group compared to the Honey Cocktail group. The body mass index remained unchanged at 27 kg/m2 (F-statistic = 1.60, p-value = 0.010) throughout 12 months of the intervention in the Honey Cocktail group.


Subjects who received Honey Cocktail showed remarkable effects on body mass index. However, Tualang Honey supplementation showed superior effect in lowering diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar compared to Honey Cocktail. Further studies are required to ascertain the underlying mechanism(s) of Tualang Honey and Honey Cocktail on each observed parameter.

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

Bangladeshi Propolis Shows Anti-Pain, Anti-Cancer, Antioxidant Effect

Antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and analgesic properties of propolis from Bangladesh

Journal of Food Biochemistry

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Propolis which is a natural resinous product from the honeybees, is becoming increasingly popular for its diverse therapeutic and industrial applications. In this study, we report for the first time the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antinociceptive activities of propolis from Bangladesh (BDP). The antioxidant activities were measured by biochemical analyses while cytotoxicity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Analgesic activity was evaluated by tail immersion and acetic acid‐induced writhing models in mice. BDP contained higher concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reducing sugars, as compared to previous reports of propolis from several countries. BDP also exhibited higher free radical‐scavenging activities and a dose‐dependent reducing power activity indicating its superior antioxidant potential. Moreover, BDP extract was most toxic to brine shrimp nauplii, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 57.99 µg/mL and exhibited considerable antinociceptive activities which may be mediated via central and peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.

Practical applications

BDP is a honeybee product, becoming increasingly popular due its potential contributions to human health. BDP is a rich source of natural antioxidants which has the potential to be used to ameliorate oxidative stress disorders and has useful antinociceptive activities. It may be useful as potential therapeutic agents against cancer, pesticidal agents, and for other cytotoxic uses.

Monday, November 26, 2018

Olive Oil/Honey/Propolis Nanocomposite a Candidate For Bone Tissue Engineering

Tailor‐made multicomponent electrospun polyurethane nanofibrous composite scaffold comprising olive oil, honey, and propolis for bone tissue engineering

Polymer Composites

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The treatment for the bone diseases or defects such as tumor ablation, bone cysts and osteolysis were still challenging in clinical applications. Recently, the bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potential option for the treatment of bone defects.

In this study, the nanofibrous composite scaffold consisting of polyurethane, olive oil, honey and propolis were fabricated through electrospinning method. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold indicated that nanofibers diameters were reduced with the addition of olive oil, honey and propolis into the Polyurethane (PU).

The contact angle measurements showed that the behavior of PU/olive oil was found to hydrophobic (114° ± 1.528) and the PU/olive oil/honey/propolis scaffold rendered hydrophilic behavior (60° ± 1.528). FTIR and TG analysis revealed the interactions of PU with olive oil, honey/propolis and increased thermal stability of the composites. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis displayed reduced surface roughness of the fabricated nanocomposite (PU/olive oil—469 nm and PU/olive oil/honey/propolis—449 nm) than the pristine PU (576 nm). The incorporation of olive oil, honey, and propolis resulted in the enhancement of the tensile strength (PU/olive oil—12.91 MPa and PU/olive oil/honey/propolis—14.346 MPa) compared with the pristine PU (7.12 MPa) as revealed in the mechanical testing.

The blood clotting time of PU/olive oil (Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)—175 ±4 s and Partial thromboplastin time (PT)—103.3 ±3.512) was enhanced than pristine PU suggesting its improved anticoagulant behavior. Further, the developed scaffold showed low hemolytic index percentage (PU/olive oil—1.41% and PU/olive oil/honey/propolis—0.95%) than the control (2.48%) indicating its safety with RBC.

Cytotoxicity test of the electrospun scaffold with human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells using 3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐5‐(3‐carboxymethoxyphenyl)‐2‐(4‐sulfophenyl)‐2H tetrazolium assay demonstrated the non‐toxic and enhanced cell viability rates of HDF cells in developed scaffold than the pristine PU.

Hence, the PU/olive oil/honey/propolis nanocomposite possessing better mechanical, physio‐chemical and biological properties might serve as a plausible candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Sunday, November 25, 2018

Propolis Component Relieves Neuropathic Pain (Burning, Coldness, "Pins and Needles," Numbness and Itching)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester attenuates neuropathic pain by suppressing the p38/NF-κB signal pathway in microglia

J Pain Res. 2018 Nov 1;11:2709-2719

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Management of neuropathic pain is still a clinical challenge. Evidence has accumulated indicating that propolis is effective in attenuating neuropathic pain; however, the mechanism is not fully understood. Our present study investigated the effects and the possible mechanism of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the main ingredient of propolis, in improving neuropathic pain via its inhibition on p38/NF-κB signal pathway in microglia.

Materials and methods:

Chronic constriction injury (CCI) mice model and the microglial cell line BV-2 were used to investigate the effects and the mechanism of CAPE. Cell signaling was measured by real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay.


CAPE relieved neuropathic pain behaviors induced by CCI in mice. CAPE also inhibited CCI-induced activation of microglia. Furthermore, CAPE suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, inhibited the translocation of NF-κB and decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6.


CAPE was found to be an effective and safe drug candidate for alleviating neuropathic pain by its powerful inhibition on the P38/NF-κB signal pathway.

Friday, November 23, 2018

Propolis Component Inhibits Growth of Multiple Myeloma Cells (Bone Marrow Cancer, Kahler's Disease, Chemotherapy, Corticosteroids, Radiation, Stem-Cell Transplant)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester exerts apoptotic and oxidative stress on human multiple myeloma cells

Invest New Drugs. 2018 Nov 22

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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phenolic compound initially identified in bee glue. CAPE is reported to exhibit antitumor activity in many cancer models. However, the effect of CAPE on multiple myeloma (MM) is not well studied.

We investigated the anti-myeloma effect of CAPE, and the data showed that CAPE inhibited the growth of human MM cells in a dose (1 ~ 30 μM) and time (24 ~72 h) dependent manner without altering the viability of normal human peripheral blood B cells. Stress and toxicity pathway analysis demonstrated that CAPE, in a dose- and time-related fashion, induced the expression of apoptotic and oxidative stress-response genes including growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible, alpha and gamma (GADD45A and GADD45G) and heme oxygenase-1.

 Apoptosis of MM cells by CAPE was further confirmed through flow cytometric analysis with up to 50% apoptotic cells induced by 50 μM CAPE within 24 h. Western blot analysis revealed the CAPE-induced activation of apoptosis executioner enzyme caspase-3, and corresponding cleavage of its downstream target poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP).

The oxidative stress caused by CAPE cytotoxicity in MM cells was evaluated through measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant intervention and glutathione depletion. The intracellular ROS level was not elevated by CAPE, but the pretreatment of antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) and glutathione synthesis inhibitor (buthionine sulfoximine) suggested that CAPE may cause oxidative stress by decrease of intracellular antioxidant level rather than over production of ROS.

These data suggest that CAPE promotes apoptosis through oxidative stress in human multiple myeloma cells.

Thursday, November 22, 2018

New Patent for Transdermal Delivery of Apitoxin (Honey Bee Venom)

Area Company Receives Patent

Nov 20, 2018 

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The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office notified Harold Gallaher and Amanda Hutchings of Divine Api-Logics LLC of the approval of their utility patent application titled “Apitherapy Method and Composition.”

The patent covers a matrix system for the transdermal delivery of Apitoxin (honey bee venom).

“We are thrilled that after years of hard work, research and development, our patent was finally granted,” Hutchings said. “It just goes to show that hard work and dedication does actually pay off. With this patent, we are able to start exploring some really exciting ideas for current and future products. The approval of this patent allows the freedom for us to grow our current product lines, Harold’s Famous and The Hive Skin Care Co., and to eventually expand into the OTC drug market.

“This patent also grants us 20 years of important, broad legal protections for our ideas, from the initial date of our application, which was November 18, 2015.”

Added Gallaher: “While expanding sales of our Harold’s Famous [Bee Cream] products, we have also extended research into new and exciting fields. It is wonderful to hear from people who find that our products offer them a better quality of life. It’s also wonderful to be leading this type of innovation while maintaining environmental responsibility and bringing awareness to the declining honey bee population.”

Divine Api-Logics LLC has a corporate office in Farmington and a distribution center and research facility in Ste. Genevieve.

Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Honey, Propolis Protect Against Effects of Radiation

Biophysical Studies of Some Bee Products as Radioprotectors

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The study had been planned to evaluate some antioxidant ingredients in honey and propolis. Also, a study on ionizing gamma irradiated rats was done to assess these antioxidants as radioprotectors. Bioactive ingredients, such as phenols, flavonoids and trace elements, were explored using FTIR, UV-Vis and AAS spectroscopic techniques.

Animals were exposed to fractionated gamma radiation doses. Honey, propolis and their combination were administrated before and during the irradiation period. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and uric acid were estimated. Also, the osmotic fragility of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) membranes and a microscopic examination of blood films were investigated.

The analysis demonstrated that the level of phenolic, flavonoid and trace elements are higher in propolis than honey. The levels of total protein and albumin decreased post irradiation while the level of uric acid increased. Likewise, osmotic fragility of RBCs membranes was increased with a sticking forming RBCs aggregation.

It had been found that administration of the natural antioxidants induced amelioration in most of the studied parameters. It can be concluded that natural antioxidants produced a modulation against oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation.

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Iraqi Propolis May Help Treat Infections

Iraqi propolis increases degradation of IL-1β and NLRC4 by autophagy following Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

Microbes Infect. 2018 Feb;20(2):89-100

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Autophagy is a cellular process for maintaining cellular homeostasis. This process can be induced by different factors, such as immune stimuli and pathogen-associated molecules. Autophagy has an important role in the control of IL-1β secretion by macrophages and other cell types.

In present study, we describe a novel role for Iraqi propolis affecting autophagy in controlling the secretion of IL-1β in bone-marrow macrophages (BMDMs). After infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of propolis, the degradation of IL-1β was induced, and the activity of inflammasome was reduced. Iraqi propolis-induced autophagy in in vitro and in vivo models decreased the levels of IL-1β and caspase-1.

Results indicated that IL-1β pathway production is regulated by autophagy via two different novel mechanisms, namely, regulation of the activation of NLRC4 inflammasome and IL-1β targeting for lysosomal degradation.

Monday, November 19, 2018

Brazilian Green Propolis is an Effective and Economic Anti-Cancer Agent

Anticancer activity of the supercritical extract of Brazilian green propolis and its active component, artepillin C: Bioinformatics and experimental analyses of its mechanisms of action

Int J Oncol. 2018 Mar;52(3):925-932

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Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees by mixing their saliva with plant sources, including tree bark and leaves and then mixed with secreted beeswax, possesses a variety of bioactivities.

Whereas caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been recognized as a major bioactive ingredient in New Zealand propolis, Brazilian green propolis, on the other hand, possesses artepillin C (ARC). In this study, we report that, similar to CAPE, ARC docks into and abrogates mortalin-p53 complexes, causing the activation of p53 and the growth arrest of cancer cells.

Cell viability assays using ARC and green propolis-supercritical extract (GPSE) revealed higher cytotoxicity in the latter, supported by nuclear translocation and the activation of p53. Furthermore, in vivo tumor suppression assays using nude mice, we found that GPSE and its conjugate with γ cyclodextrin (γCD) possessed more potent anticancer activity than purified ARC.

GPSE‑γCD may thus be recommended as a natural, effective and economic anticancer amalgam.