Saturday, October 19, 2019

Bee Pollen Protects Nervous System

The therapeutic and protective effects of bee pollen against prenatal methylmercury induced neurotoxicity in rat pups

Metab Brain Dis. 2019 Oct 17

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

The current study evaluated the protective and therapeutic potency of bee pollen in ameliorating the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg), by measuring certain biochemical parameters related to neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity in the male neonate brain.

Healthy, pregnant female rats (N = 40) were randomly divided into 5 groups, each comprising10 male neonates, as follows: (i) neonates delivered by control mothers; (ii) neonates delivered by MeHg-treated mothers who received 0.5 mg/kg BW/day MeHg via drinking water from gestational day 7 till postnatal day 7; (iii) neonates delivered by bee pollen treated mothers who received 200-mg/kg BW bee pollen from postnatal day 0 for 4 weeks; (iv) protective group of neonates delivered by MeHg and bee pollen-treated mothers, who continued to receive bee pollen until day 21 at the same dose, and (v) therapeutic group of neonates delivered by MeHg- treated mothers followed by bee pollen treatment, wherein they received 200-mg/kg BW bee pollen from postnatal day 0 for 4 weeks.

Selected biochemical parameters in brain homogenates from each group were measured. MeHg-treated groups exhibited various signs of brain toxicity, such as a marked reduction in neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT), nor-adrenalin (NA), dopamine (DA)) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and elevated levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), caspase-3, and glutamate (Glu). Bee pollen effectively reduced the neurotoxic effects of MeHg. Minimal changes in all measured parameters were observed in MeHg-treated animals compared to the control group.

Therefore, bee pollen may safely improve neurotransmitter defects, inflammation, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Iranian Propolis Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth

Iranian propolis efficiently inhibits growth of oral streptococci and cancer cell lines

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Propolis is a natural bee product with a wide range of biological activities that are related to its chemical composition. The present study investigated the quantification of quercetin (Q) in Ardabil ethanol extract of propolis (AEEP), and then compared its anti-bacterial, anti- biofilm and cytotoxic effects on cancer and normal cell lines.


In the present study, the chemical composition of AEEP was determined through the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The AEEP and its main component, quercetin (Q), were evaluated in vitro against 57 oral streptococci by a broth micro-dilution method. The biofilm formation was assessed through the crystal violet staining and MTT assays. The impact of AEEP and Q anti-proliferative effect were evaluated on the fibroblast as normal and cancer cell lines (KB and A431).


The Q concentration in the composition of AEEP was 6.9% of all its components. The findings indicated that the AEEP and Q were efficient against the cariogenic bacteria and were able to inhibit the S.mutans biofilm adherence at a sub-MIC concentration. Moreover, electron micrographs indicated the inhibition of biofilms compared to control biofilms. In addition, the AEEP and Q indicated a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on A431 and KB cell lines. On the contrary, they had no cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells.


The results indicated that the synergistic impact of main components of AEEP was related to the inhibition of the cancer cell proliferation, cariogenic bacteria and oral biofilm formation. It may play a promising role in the complementary medicine and, it is suggested to be used as food additives.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Propolis Helps Treat Diabetic Foot Wounds

Propolis as an Adjuvant in the Healing of Human Diabetic Foot Wounds Receiving Care in the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre from the Regional Hospital of Talca

J Diabetes Res. 2019 Sep 12;2019:2507578

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Diabetic foot wounds are a relevant diabetes complication and a major health problem. It has been described that propolis has health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and support in the healing process. The current study assessed the effect of propolis as an adjuvant in the healing of human diabetic foot ulcers. This was evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled study of subjects receiving care in the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre from the Regional Hospital of Talca, Chile.

Research Design and Methods:

Randomized subjects received ambulatory healing treatment for diabetes foot wounds with propolis spray (3%), which was applied to cover the entire wound surface each time it was dressed from week 0 until cicatrization or 8 weeks as a maximum. Two serum samples were taken (day 0 and end of the study) for cytokine and oxidative stress analyses. Also, macro- and microscopy were analyzed in the process of wound healing.


The study comprised 31 subjects with type 2 diabetes in treatment for diabetic foot wounds in the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre from the Regional Hospital of Talca. Propolis promotes a reduction of the wound's area by an average of 4 cm2, related to an increase in the connective tissue deposit compared to the control. Also, propolis increased the glutathione (GSH) and GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio (p < 0.02), depleted tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and increased interleukin- (IL-) 10 levels. Topical propolis did not modify the biochemical parameters in the serum of the studied subjects.


The topical use of propolis turned out to be an interesting therapeutic strategy as an adjuvant in the care of diabetes foot wounds due to its ability to improve and promote healing based on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Combined Protective Effects of Malaysian Propolis and Metformin Improve Diabetic Male Fertility

Oxidative Stress, NF-κB-Mediated Inflammation and Apoptosis in the Testes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Combined Protective Effects of Malaysian Propolis and Metformin

Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Oct 9;8(10). pii: E465

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis are major complications that trigger organ failure in diabetes mellitus (DM), and are proven to adversely affect the male reproductive system.

Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the promising protective effects of propolis in DM and its associated systemic effects. Herein, we investigated the effect of Malaysian propolis (MP) on testicular oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats. Further, the possibility of a complementary effect of MP with the anti-hyperglycaemic agent, metformin (Met), was studied with the idea of recommending its use in the event that Met alone is unable to contain the negative effects of DM on the male reproductive system in mind. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either gavaged distilled water (normoglycaemic control and diabetic control groups), MP (diabetic rats on MP), Met (diabetic rats on Met) or MP+Met (diabetic rats on MP+Met), for 4 weeks. MP decreased oxidative stress by up-regulating (p < 0.05) testicular mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; increasing (p < 0.05) the activities of antioxidant enzymes; and decreasing (p < 0.05) lipid peroxidation in the testes and epididymis of diabetic rats.

Further, MP down-regulated (p < 0.05) testicular mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (nuclear factor kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β), decreased (p < 0.05) the nitric oxide level, and increased (p < 0.05) IL-10 mRNA and protein levels. MP also down-regulated (p < 0.05) Bax/Bcl-2, p53, casapase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 genes, and increased (p < 0.05) testicular germ cell proliferation. MP's effects were comparable to Met. However, the best results were achieved following co-administration of MP and Met.

Therefore, we concluded that administration of the MP+Met combination better attenuates testicular oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in DM, relative to MP or Met monotherapy, and may improve the fertility of males with DM.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Gelam Honey Promotes Corneal Wound Healing

Gelam honey promotes ex vivo corneal fibroblasts wound healing

Cytotechnology. 2019 Oct 12

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

This study evaluated the effects of Gelam honey (GH) on ex vivo corneal fibroblast ulcer model via wound healing assay, gene expression and immunocytochemistry.

Corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand white rabbits were culture expanded. The corneal fibroblast wound healing capacity was observed by creating a circular wound onto confluent monolayer cells cultured in basal medium (BM), BM with GH, serum-enriched basal medium (BMS) and BMS with GH respectively.

Wound healing assay and phenotypic characterization of the corneal fibroblast were performed at different stages of wound closure. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), lumican, collagen I and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP 12) were measured at day 1, day 3 and complete wound closure day. Corneal fibroblast cultured in BMS with GH demonstrated the fastest wound closure, at day 5 post wounding.

The gene expressions of ALDH and vimentin were higher than control groups while α-SMA expression was lower, in GH enriched media. The expressions of lumican, collagen I and MMP 12 were also higher in cells cultured in GH enriched media compared to the control groups.

GH was shown to promote in vitro corneal fibroblast wound healing and may be a potential natural adjunct in the treatment of corneal wound.

Wednesday, October 09, 2019

Bee Venom Component May Help Restore Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease (Aging, Ageing, Dementia, Brain, Mental, Cognitive)

Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates amyloidogenesis and neuroinflammation through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 pathway in Tg2576 mice

Transl Neurodegener. 2019 Oct 2;8:26

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) play a significant role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) plays a major role in neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis.


In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) on memory deficiency in Tg2576 mice, which demonstrate genetic characteristics of AD and the mechanism of its action at the cellular and animal level. For in vivo study, we examined the effect of bvPLA2 on improving memory by conducting several behavioral tests with the administration of bvPLA2 (1 mg/kg) to Tg2576 mice. For in vitro study, we examined the effect of bvPLA2 on amyloidogenesis and neuroinflammation by treating bvPLA2 on LPS-activated BV2 cells.


We found that bvPLA2 alleviated memory impairment in Tg2576 mice, as demonstrated in the behavioral tests assessing memory. In the bvPLA2-treated group, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and β-secretase 1 (BACE1) levels and β-secretase activity were significantly decreased. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related proteins decreased in the brain of bvPLA2-treated group, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines increased. In addition, bvPLA2 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation in the brains of the bvPLA2-treated group. At the cellular level, bvPLA2 inhibits production of nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammation-related proteins including p-STAT3. Additionally, bvPLA2 inhibits the production of Aβ in cultured BV-2 cells. Results from the docking experiment, pull-down assay, and the luciferase assay show that bvPLA2 directly binds STAT3 and, thus, regulates gene expression levels. Moreover, when the STAT3 inhibitor and bvPLA2 were administered together, the anti-amyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory effects were further enhanced than when they were administered alone.


These results suggest that bvPLA2 could restore memory by inhibiting the accumulation of Aβ and inflammatory responses via blockage of STAT3 activity.

Tuesday, October 08, 2019

Propolis Prevents Damage to the Liver

Protective Role of Propolis on Low and High Dose Furan-induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

J Vet Res. 2019 Sep 13;63(3):423-431

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


The aim of this study was to evaluate potential protective effects of propolis on furan-induced hepatic damage by assessing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes in the liver.

Material and Methods:

Albino Wistar rats were divided into six groups: a control, propolis-treated (100 mg/kg b.w./day), low-dose furan-treated (furan-L group; 2 mg/kg b.w./day), high-dose furan-treated (furan-H group; 16 mg/kg b.w./day), furan-L+propolis treated, and furan-H+propolis treated group. Propolis and furan were applied by gavage; propolis for 8 days, and furan for 20 days in furan-L groups and 10 days in furan-H groups.


While MDA levels were elevated in furan-treated groups, levels of GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased (p < 0.001). The levels of MDA and GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes were normal in the furan+propolis groups, especially in the furan-L+propolis group (p < 0.001). While the aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate pdehydrogenase activities were elevated in the furan-H treated group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001), they were unchanged in the furan-L treated group. Histopathologically, several lesions were observed in the liver tissues of the furan-treated groups, especially in the higher-dose group. It was determined that these changes were milder in both of the furan+propolis groups.


The results indicate that propolis exhibits good hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against furan-induced hepatocellular damage in rats.

Monday, October 07, 2019

MGO™ Manuka Honey Inhibits Infectious Diseases

Oligosaccharides Isolated from MGO™ Manuka Honey Inhibit the Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus Aureus to Human HT-29 cells

Foods. 2019 Oct 1;8(10). pii: E446

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Historically, honey is known for its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities and its use for treatment of wound infections.

Although this practice has been in place for millennia, little information exists regarding which manuka honey components contribute to the protective nature of this product. Given that sugar accounts for over 80% of honey and up to 25% of this sugar is composed of oligosaccharides, we have investigated the anti-infective activity of manuka honey oligosaccharides against a range of pathogens.

Initially, oligosaccharides were extracted from a commercially-available New Zealand manuka honey-MGO™ Manuka Honey (Manuka Health New Zealand Ltd)-and characterized by High pH anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperiometric detection. The adhesion of specific pathogens to the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line, HT-29, was then assessed in the presence and absence of these oligosaccharides. Manuka honey oligosaccharides significantly reduced the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (by 40%), Staphylococcus aureus (by 30%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (by 52%) to HT-29 cells. This activity was then proven to be concentration dependent and independent of bacterial killing.

This study identifies MGO™ Manuka Honey as a source of anti-infective oligosaccharides for applications in functional foods aimed at lowering the incidence of infectious diseases.

Saturday, October 05, 2019

Swiss Honeydew Honey Shows Higher Antibacterial Activity

Antibacterial potential of Swiss honeys and characterisation of their bee-derived bioactive compounds

J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Oct 4

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Antibacterial activity of honey is not only crucial characteristic in selection of honey for medical usage but also an important honey quality marker. The aim of the study was to characterize the antibacterial potential of 29 honey samples representing the main types of multi-floral blossom and honeydew honeys produced in Switzerland. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed as a minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Furthermore, the content of bee derived glucose oxidase (GOX) and its enzymatic product, H2 O2 , were also evaluated.


All honey samples successfully met basic defined criteria (moisture and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) tested in this study. Honeydew honeys were the most effective honey samples and generated the highest levels of H2 O2 . A strong significant correlation was found between the overall antibacterial activity and the level of H2 O2 among all honey samples. Interestingly, the content of GOX in honey samples did not correlate with their antibacterial activity as well as H2 O2 production capacity. A weak antibacterial activity was determined in 5 floral honeys, most likely due to increased enzymatic activity of pollen-derived catalase.


This study showed that antibacterial effect of Swiss honey samples is associated mainly with H2 O2 .

Friday, October 04, 2019

Brazilian Propolis Protects Against Risk Factor for Aging (Anti-Aging)

The Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Glycation Stress in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

Foods. 2019 Sep 25;8(10). pii: E439

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

We investigated the protective effect of Brazilian propolis, a natural resinous substance produced by honeybees, against glycation stress in mouse skeletal muscles. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) Normal diet + drinking water, (2) Brazilian propolis (0.1%)-containing diet + drinking water, (3) normal diet + methylglyoxal (MGO) (0.1%)-containing drinking water, and (4) Brazilian propolis (0.1%)-containing diet + MGO (0.1%)-containing drinking water. MGO treatment for 20 weeks reduced the weight of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and tended to be in the soleus muscle.

Ingestion of Brazilian propolis showed no effect on this change in EDL muscles but tended to increase the weight of the soleus muscles regardless of MGO treatment. In EDL muscles, Brazilian propolis ingestion suppressed the accumulation of MGO-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in MGO-treated mice. The activity of glyoxalase 1 was not affected by MGO, but was enhanced by Brazilian propolis in EDL muscles. MGO treatment increased mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Brazilian propolis ingestion suppressed these increases. MGO and/or propolis exerted no effect on the accumulation of AGEs, glyoxalase 1 activity, and inflammatory responses in soleus muscles.

These results suggest that Brazilian propolis exerts a protective effect against by inhibiting the accumulation of AGEs, promoting MGO detoxification, and reducing proinflammatory responses in the skeletal muscle. However, these anti-glycation effects does not lead to prevent glycation-induced muscle mass reduction.

Monday, September 30, 2019

Turkish Honeydew Honey May Help Prevent Cancer

Quercus pyrenaica Honeydew Honey With High Phenolic Contents Cause DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Cell Death Through Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

Integr Cancer Ther. 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419876334

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Many studies have shown that honey with high phenolic contents prevents cancer formation.
Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that honey can be used for the treatment of cancer as well as cancer prevention. Antineoplastic effects of honey are often associated with their antioxidant phenolic contents. However, very few studies have dealt with the association of phenolic contents of honeys in terms of antiproliferative effects.

The aim of this study was, therefore, to elucidate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating effects of honey samples on the basis of their phenolic and flavonoid contents.

Fourteen different honey varieties were collected from various parts of Turkey, and their characteristics regarding total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant contents were determined to test their effects on gastric cancer cells (AGS). For convenience, 2 honey varieties were selected, namely, Ida Mountains Quercus pyrenaica honeydew honey (QPHH-IM) having the highest phenolic and antioxidant content and Canakkale multifloral honey (MFH-C) with the lowest phenolic and antioxidant content.

Levels of 11 different phenolic compounds in QPHH-IM and MFH-C samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. AGS cells were incubated with different concentrations of QPHH-IM and MFH-C for 24 hours, then the cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis, and generation of ROS were determined.

We found that QPHH-IM had more cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic effects than that of MFH-C.

We think that these effects are probably related to pro-oxidant activities due to the high phenolic contents present. Therefore, further research on high-phenolic honey may contribute to the future development of cancer therapeutics.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Propolis May Help Prevent Infertility

The propolis and boric acid can be highly suitable, alone/or as a combinatory approach on ovary ischemia-reperfusion injury

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019 Sep 23

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage continues to be a serious infertility problem. The oxidative stress plays central role in the development of IR injuries. Activation of antioxidants decreases IR injuries; however, the efficacy of antioxidant agents remains controversial. Unfortunately, there has been no evidence for medicinal use of boric acid (BA) and propolis (Prop) on ovarian IR injury on rats so far. This study will provide to reveal the potential applications of the Prop and BA in ovarian IR therapy.


The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: I-control, II-IR, 3 h of ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion, III and IV-a signal dose of oral BA (7 mg/kg) and Prop (100 mg/kg) alone 1 h before induction of IR, V-Prop and BA together 1 h before induction of IR. SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GSH (glutathione), MPO (myeloperoxidase), MDA (malondialdehyde), and IL-6 (interleukin-6) levels were quantified by ELISA and the TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), 8-OHdG (8-hydroxylo-2'-deoxyguanosin) and Caspase-3 expressions were performed by immunohistochemical analyses.


BA and Prop pretreatment significantly reduced MPO, MDA, and IL-6 levels and pathologic score in IR rats, with no effects in control group. These agents used in therapy also decreased TNF-α, 8-OHdG and Caspase-3 protein expressions increased by IR. Furthermore, BA and Prop combination showed significant ameliorative effects on ovary injury caused by IR through acting as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent.


BA and Prop alone and especially in combination could be developed as therapeutic agents against ovary IR injury.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Propolis Protects Against Intestinal Damage Caused by Diabetes

Propolis modulates the gut microbiota and improves the intestinal mucosal barrier function in diabetic rats

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Oct;118:109393

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Diabetes mellitus is associated with gut microbiota disturbance and intestinal mucosal injuries. This study investigated the influence of propolis on the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa in rats with diabetes.


Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the control group, model group, and three propolis groups (supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg·bw propolis, respectively). A high-fat diet combined with a streptozotocin (STZ) abdominal injection were used to induce diabetes in the rats. After 4 weeks, the intestinal histopathological analysis of the ileum was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin, glucose tolerance (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. The expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum was measured using western blotting. The molecular ecology of the fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The contents of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).


After propolis treatment, compared to the model group, FBG and HbA1c levels declined, while the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) increased. The levels of TJ proteins in the ileum increased in the propolis groups. The tight junctions and gap junctions of the intestinal epithelium were also improved in the propolis groups. The contents of the feces acetic acid, propionic acid and butyrate were increased in the propolis groups. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota of rats in the propolis supplement group was significantly improved.


Compared to the model group, propolis exerted hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats, and it repaired intestinal mucosal damage, benefited the communities of the gut microbiota and increased SCFA levels in diabetic rats.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Propolis Helps Treat Menstrual Cramps (heavy flow, uterine fibroids, endometriosis primary dysmenorrhea, menstruation)

The effect of bee prepolis on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial

Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2019 Sep;62(5):352-356

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


Primary dysmenorrhea typically occurs with no associated pelvic pathology and is common in adolescents and young women. This study evaluated the effect of bee propolis on relief of primary dysmenorrhea.


The study was performed in 2018 in Hamadan, in western Iran, among female students with primary dysmenorrhea. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, using balanced block randomization, and were administered a placebo or bee propolis capsules for 5 days during two menstruation cycles. The number of participants required was estimated to be 86 in total, with 43 students in each group according to the inclusion criteria. We used the visual analog scale to assess pain severity. The independent t-test was conducted for comparing between two groups, using SPSS 16.0.


A significant change was found in the mean pain scores during the first (P < 0.001) and second (P < 0.001) months after using bee propolis in comparison with placebo. The means of the pain scores in the bee propolis group were 5.32±2.28 and 4.74±2.40 in first and second months after the intervention, respectively, whereas the means of the pain scores in the placebo group were 7.40±1.21 and 7.17±1.24 in first and second months after the intervention, respectively.


Our study showed that the use of bee propolis for two months compared with placebo reduced primary dysmenorrhea during the first and second months after use, with no adverse effects. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for relief of primary dysmenorrhea.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Malaysian Tualang Honey Inhibits Vascular Hyperpermeability

Malaysian Tualang Honey Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Endothelial Hyperpermeability

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Aug 18;2019:1202676

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) is a known therapeutic honey extracted from the honeycombs of the Tualang tree (Koompassia excelsa) and has been reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and wound healing properties.

However, the possible vascular protective effect of TH against oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, the effects of TH on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) elicited vascular hyperpermeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Balb/c mice were evaluated. Our data showed that TH concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 1.00% showed no cytotoxic effect to HUVECs. Induction with 0.5 mM H2O2 was found to increase HUVEC permeability, but the effect was significantly reversed attenuated by TH (p < 0.05), of which the permeability with the highest inhibition peaked at 0.1%.

In Balb/c mice, TH (0.5 g/kg-1.5 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced H2O2 (0.3%)-induced albumin-bound Evans blue leak, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that TH reduced actin stress fiber formation while increasing cortical actin formation and colocalization of caveolin-1 and β-catenin in HUVECs. Signaling studies showed that HUVECs pretreated with TH significantly (p < 0.05) decreased intracellular calcium release, while sustaining the level of cAMP when challenged with H2O2.

These results suggested that TH could inhibit H2O2-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo by suppression of adherence junction protein redistribution via calcium and cAMP, which could have a therapeutic potential for diseases related to the increase of both oxidant and vascular permeability.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Honey May Help Treat Liver Cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], cirrhosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C)

Effect of co-administration of Bee honey and some chemotherapeutic drugs on dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

Toxicol Rep. 2019 Aug 16;6:875-888

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Alternative and complimentary usage of the natural compound has raised hopes of finding curative options for liver hepatocarcinogenesis.

In the present study, the curative effect of bee honey against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (50 mg/kg) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (2 mg/Kg)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in male rats in the presence or absence of some chemotherapeutic drugs, Cisplatin (Cis), Cyclophosphamide (CY) and 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) were investigated.

The obtained results demonstrated that treatment with DEN/CCl4 caused oxidative stress as assigned by the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and fall in glutathione (GSH) content. Meantime detraction in the antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was observed.

Also, the results showed induction of inflammation as reflected by an increase in the levels of both α- fetoprotein and α- fucosidase in the liver. This was accompanied by changes in the hepatic function biomarkers which characterized by the increased levels of transaminases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-Glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and decrease in total protein content in the serum.

In conclusion, the combination of the selected drugs and bee honey may be an effective chemo- preventive and therapeutic strategy for treating DEN and CCl4-induced HCC.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Honey and Propolis May Help Reduce Stress in Women

Glucocorticoid and cortisol hormone in response to honey and honey propolis supplementation in mild stress women

Enferm Clin. 2019 Sep 10. pii: S1130-8621(19)30297-9

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


This study aimed to assess the response of supplementation of honey and honey propolis to women who experience mild stress.


The subjects of 30 people were divided into 3 groups; control, honey, and propolis honey every 10 people per group. All groups were given the same dose of 60g/day for 14 days. Measurements of glucocorticoid and cortisol hormones using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the difference in cortisol hormone levels before and after the intervention were analyzed by a paired T-test.


Honey and propolis honey group decrease cortisol levels but none of the groups have significant changes. This is reciprocal with the changes in the hormone cortisol, the decrease in glucocorticoid hormone levels in the group given honey is the highest following propolis honey and the control group. However, changes in glucocorticoid hormones in the honey group were statistically significant.


Our result confirmed that in women who experience mild stress, honey and honey propolis have the potential to reduce stress-related hormones, that is glucocorticoids and cortisol, this reduction does not have the potential to suppress the immune system.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Medical Grade Honey May Help Treat Vaginal Yeast Infections (vulvovaginal candidiasis)

Sweet Relief: Determining the Antimicrobial Activity of Medical Grade Honey Against Vaginal Isolates of Candida albicans

J Fungi (Basel). 2019 Sep 9;5(3). pii: E85

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is predicted to increase to almost 158 million cases annually by 2030. Extensive self-diagnosis and easily accessible over-the-counter (OTC) fungistatic drugs contribute to antifungal-resistance, illustrating the need for novel therapies.

Honey possesses multiple antimicrobial mechanisms, and there is no antimicrobial resistance towards honey reported. We evaluated the susceptibility of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans and a control strain to regular honey and a medical grade honey (MGH) gel formulation (L-Mesitran, containing 40% honey and vitamins C and E) using an adapted version of the EUCAST protocol at pH 5.2, 4.6, and 4.0. 40% regular honey did not kill or inhibit C. albicans.

In contrast, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L-Mesitran was 25%-50%, while fungicidal effects occurred at a 50% concentration (MBC) of the MGH formulation, except for one strain which was not killed at pH 4.0. Overall, pH had little effect on antimicrobial activity. MGH formulation L-Mesitran has antimicrobial activity against C. albicans over a relevant pH range. The vitamin supplements or other components of L-Mesitran may enhance the antifungal activity of the honey.

This study supports performing clinical trials for conditions, such as RVVC, to find an alternative to available OTC fungistatic drugs.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Man whose penis ‘split’ has it reconstructed with HONEY – and he can now have sex again

The Sun

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

...But during an examination it was revealed that the unnamed man was circumcised, according to an article published in the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.

Medics at Zealand University Hospital discovered the patient had non-cancerous tumours at the root, shaft and tip of his penis, which were infected.

The growths were causing the skin to split - known as penile denudation.

Medics removed the tumours and attempted to reconstruct his member with skin grafts, but the procedure was unsuccessful.

They then decided to try Manuka honey, renowned for its anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and healing properties, the docs said.

Incredibly, the honey dressings had a "satisfying result" and after two weeks healthy tissue had started to fill the wound...

Monday, September 09, 2019

Wedderspoon Debuts New Bee Propolis Throat Spray Line

Wedderspoon Debuts New Bee Propolis Throat Spray Line with Monofloral Manuka Honey at Natural Products Expo East 2019

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

MALVERN, Pa.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- U.S. Leader of Genuine Manuka Honey Unveils Unique Functional Format Combining the Power of Propolis and Manuka to Soothe and Promote Oral Health

Wedderspoon, passionate steward of authentic Manuka Honey-based products and the #1 selling Manuka Honey brand in the U.S., will debut a new line of functional wellness products, Bee Propolis Throat Sprays with Monofloral Manuka Honey, at Natural Products Expo East Sept. 11-14.

Consumers can seek relief with just three sprays of the Bee Propolis Sprays to help soothe throats and support their immune systems. This new line is available in three flavor offerings including Warming Orange Spice, Cooling Chamomile Mint, and Lemon Ginger. Attendees of Natural Products Expo East are invited to booth #1032 to be the first to see the brand’s newest Manuka Honey innovations...

Saturday, September 07, 2019

Royal Jelly Helps Treat Symptoms of Menopause (Hot Flashes, Aging, Ageing, Fatigue, Night Sweats, Osteoporosis, Insomnia, Anxiety, Irritability, Moodiness, Reduced Sex Drive, Vaginal Dryness)

Could royal jelly be an alternative to HRT? Researchers find the expensive honey bee secretion can help alleviate hot flushes and irritability

It’s a creamy substance bottled up and sold alongside claims it can fight ageing
A study now suggests royal jelly could also combat symptoms of the menopause
It was four times more effective at combating hot flushes as placebos, it found
It comes after a bombshell Oxford study last week linked HRT to breast cancer


BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

It’s a creamy substance bottled up and sold in health food stores alongside bold claims it can boost your sex drive and fight ageing.

But research now suggests royal jelly – secreted by honey bees to feed their queen – could also be used to combat symptoms of the menopause.

Scientists found taking 'bee milk' daily was four times more effective at combating hot flushes as placebos in women going through ‘the change’.

It comes after a bombshell study last week linked HRT – often dished out to alleviate symptoms in menopausal women – to breast cancer...

Friday, September 06, 2019

Honey May Help Treat Malaria, Giardia, Amoebic Dysentery (Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Parasites)

In vitro activity of some natural honeys against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites

Saudi J Biol Sci. 2019 Feb;26(2):238-243

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Considering the potentiality of honey in combating diseases, the present study was carried out aiming to assess the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of several honeys (Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, and Cucurbita maxima) against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia by employing the sub-culture method.

All the tested honeys inhibited the growth of trophozoites, and the level of inhibition varied according to the assayed concentrations and incubation times. Acacia seyal honey had completely stopped motility of E. histolytica trophozoites at a concentration ≤ 50 µg/ml after incubation for 72 h. Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia seyal, and Acacia nilotica honeys had completely inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites at concentration ≤ 200 µg/ml after 72 h.

These inhibitory activities were similar to that of Metronidazole™ which showed IC50  = 0.27. The mammalian cytotoxicity of these honeys against normal Vero cell line which determined by applying MTT method verified the nontoxicity of the examined honeys. Also the proximate composition of the samples indicated compliance with the natural honey standards.

The findings of the study indicate the need for in vivo studies and further investigations to identify active principles with antiprotozoal activities from natural honeys.

Wednesday, September 04, 2019

Brazilian Propolis May Help Treat Colitis (Irritable Bowel Syndrome [IBS], Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis)

Brazilian propolis extract reduces intestinal barrier defects and inflammation in a colitic mouse model

Nutr Res. 2019 Jul 30;69:30-41

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Brazilian propolis is rich in cinnamic acid derivatives and reportedly reduces intestinal inflammation in rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that the regulation of tight junction (TJ) barrier, Th17 cell differentiation, and/or, macrophage activation by cinnamic acid derivatives were involved in the propolis-mediated anti-inflammatory effect.

Mice were orally administered 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in combination with either the feeding control or a diet containing 0.3% ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis for 9 days.

DSS administration induced acute colitis in mice, whereas the propolis extract mitigated DSS-induced weight loss; colon shortening; increased plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; reduced expression of TJ proteins, such as zonula occludens, junctional adhesion molecule-A, occludin, and claudins; and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-17a. Cinnamic acid derivatives, such as artepillin C and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, present in the propolis extract suppressed the IL-17 production from cultured murine splenocytes through decreased retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gT expression. Baccharin, drupanin, and culifolin, which are also present in Brazilian propolis, reduced the TNF-α and/or IL-6 production by suppressing inflammatory signaling in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Taken together, the regulation of Th17 differentiation and macrophage activation by cinnamic acid derivatives, at least in part, contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect mediated by Brazilian propolis.

Monday, September 02, 2019

Royal Jelly Helps Treat Limb-Threatening Diabetic Foot Wounds

Efficacy of a new local limb salvage treatment for limb-threatening diabetic foot wounds - a randomized controlled study

Dove Press

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Background: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the main risk factor for nontraumatic lower-limb amputation. We hypothesized that by reversing the offending local tissue factors resulting from the low tissue supply of oxygen, inefficient fuel metabolism and acidosis, we can eradicate the infection and help to promote healing. This might be enhanced with the help of an innovated local preparation (PEDYPHAR®,) through its enriched alkaline ointment base and the regenerating growth factors of Royal Jelly (RJ) plus the antimicrobial, immune-modulatory nutritional and other biochemical properties of RJ and Panthenol. We conducted this study to test the safety and efficacy of PEDYPHAR ointment as an adjuvant in limb salvage management for patients with limb-threatening diabetic foot wounds.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled open-label study design with a mean follow-up period of 12 weeks. One hundred and nineteen eligible patients with diabetic foot wounds presenting to 3 outpatient clinics in Egypt were randomized to be treated with the local application of either PEDYPHAR or Panthenol ointment under dressing after conservative debridement of necrotic tissue and irrigation with warm normal saline.

Results: At the end of the 12-week follow-up period, PEDYPHAR showed a higher rate of complete healing of limb-threatening wounds in the intent-to-treat population, 11 of 34 (32.4%) in PEDYPHAR-treated group versus 3/25 (12%) in the Panthenol-treated (control) group (p = 0.034* [*indicates it is statistically significant]).

Conclusion: We can conclude that PEDYPHAR could be an effective and safe conservative local adjuvant treatment for cases of diabetic foot infection.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Brazilian Red Propolis Varnish Helps Prevent Tooth Decay (Cavities)

Dose-response evaluation of propolis dental varnish in children: A randomized study.

Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2019 Aug 26

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-response concentration of alcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), in the form of dental varnish, against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in children.


Twenty-four children, aged between 36 and 71 months, of both genders and without caries, were selected to participate in this pilot study and grouped randomly into four groups to receive different concentrations of BRP varnish (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). The varnish was applied to the surface of all second deciduous molars. The antimicrobial activity was observed in saliva, which was collected in two phases: Before applying the BRP varnish and after use.


There was microbiological reduction of S. mutans in the oral cavity of the children in all the tested concentrations. The highest percentage reduction of S. mutans was observed at the concentration of 2.5% (P = 0.0443).


The BRP extract in the form of dental varnish has antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and constitutes a possible alternative in the prevention of dental caries.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Malaysian Tualang Honey Improves Quality of Life for HIV Positive Patients (AIDS)

Tualang honey ameliorates viral load, CD4 counts and improves quality of life in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

J Tradit Complement Med. 2018 Sep 28;9(4):249-256. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.05.003. eCollection 2019 Oct.

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

This is the first study to report on the effects of honey in asymptomatic HIV positive subjects in ameliorating CD4 count, viral load (VL) and quality of life (QOL). It is a randomized, controlled, open labelled study, comparing the effects of Tualang honey (TH) administration for six months at three different doses: 20 g (THL), 40 g (THI) or 60 g (THH) daily compared with control (no administered treatment, THC).

Only asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (n = 95) having CD4 count 250-600 cell/ml, not on antiretrovirals were enrolled. Blood, (together with QOL questionnaires administration) were investigated at baseline, three and six months (CD4 cell count) while VL was determined only at baseline and six months. Significant reductions in CD4 counts in THL and THC groups (p = 0.003 for both) were seen with no significant reductions in the CD4 counts in THI and THH groups (p = 0.447 and 0.053 respectively). There was improvement in VL in THC and THI (130% and 32% respectively) and reductions in THL and THH (26% and 8% respectively). Within and between group analyses for VL indicated significant differences between THL and THH compared to THC.

In addition, significant improvement in QOL of groups which received TH was noted. TH has the potential to improve the QOL (physical and psychological) and CD4 counts. There was a trend of lower VL in asymptomatic HIV subjects following TH administration thus supporting the possible role of TH in boosting the immune system by improving CD4 counts, causing VL reductions in HIV positive subjects.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Propolis Supplementation Improves Immune response

Propolis supplementation improved productivity, oxidative status, and immune response of Barki ewes and lambs

Vet World. 2019 Jun;12(6):834-843

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


The present study was conducted to study the effect of propolis administration on bio-hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and productivity of Barki ewes during late pregnancy and lactation under the arid conditions.

Materials and Methods:

Twenty-five pregnant Barki ewes were fed the basal diet (n = 12, control) and the basal diet plus propolis (5 g/kg diet, n = 13) for 1 month before parturition and continued 2 months after parturition. Milk yield and milk composition, hematological constituents, antioxidant enzyme activities, thyroid hormones, and lambs birth and weaning weights, and antioxidants were determined.


Significant (p < 0.05) increase in white blood cells in the propolis group compared to control was observed. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) and corpuscular Hb (MCH concentration %) were decreased (p < 0.05) in propolis compared to control group. Milk yield was increased (p < 0.05) in the propolis group compared with control and continued to increase with the advancement of lactation. Milk fat and milk total solids increased (p < 0.05) in the propolis group than the control. Plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) was increased (p < 0.05) in propolis compared to control with no effect in IgM and IgG. Superoxide dismutase, hydrogen peroxide (HP), and nitric oxide were decreased (p < 0.01) in the propolis group compared to control. Weaning weight for lambs born to ewes fed propolis was increased (p < 0.05) at week 8 after birth compared with control lambs. Malondialdehyde and HP activities were decreased (p < 0.01) in lambs born to propolis ewes compared to control.


Crude Chinese propolis (5 g/d) supplementation improved milk yield, milk composition, and the antioxidant enzymes in Barki ewes and immune functions, growth performance and antioxidant status in their lambs under arid conditions.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Pollen Extracts May Help Treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Chronic Prostatitis (CP) - (Enlarged Prostate, Bladder, Urinary Tract, Kidney)

Therapeutic efficacy of orally administered pollen for nonallergic diseases: An umbrella review.

Phytother Res. 2019 Aug 21

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set

Pollen has been used for centuries as a tonic and a multipurpose remedy in traditional medicine. The present umbrella review aims to qualitatively assess the therapeutic efficacy of orally administered pollen in the management of nonallergic diseases.

MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Articles were independently screened and selected, then quality of evidence of included studies was evaluated with a dedicated NIH tool. Retrieved evidence was critically appraised and discussed. Two hundred four articles were found and, after selection process, five systematic reviews were included in the present work, including one with a meta-analysis.

Evidence from these reviews supports the use of grass pollen extracts for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis (CP). Additional preliminary evidence on the topic indicates the potential use of grass pollen extracts for vasomotor symptoms in women. Overall, results of the present review suggest that flower pollen extracts may be useful as a complementary remedy for the management of BPH, CP, and vasomotor symptoms. Evidence regarding bee pollen is too limited to draw any conclusion on its clinical efficacy. Further studies are needed.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Asian Giant Honey Bee Honey May Help Treat Osteoporosis (Ageing, Aging, Old, Elderly, Bones, Diagnosis, Treatment)

Protective effects of honey by bees (Apis dorsata) on decreased cortical thickness and bone impact strength of ovariohysterectomized rats as models for menopause

Vet World. 2019 Jun;12(6):868-876

BUY Concentrated Propolis in Veggie Capsules  

BUY 3-Piece (2 Fountain Pens, Rollerball) Gift Set


This study aimed to determine the potential of honey as anti-osteoporosis by evaluating its effectiveness in increasing bone impact strength and cortical thickness, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination.

Materials and Methods:

Forty-five female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. They were placed in individual cages and adapted to food and environment for 10 days. On the 11th day, after the animals were adapted for 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups (n = 9): Sham operation group (SH); ovariohysterectomized (OVX) group with no treatment; OVX with treatment Apis dorsata 1 g/kg BW (AD-1); OVX with treatment A. dorsata 2 g/kg BW (AD-2); and OVX with treatment A. dorsata 4 g/kg BW (AD-3). Furthermore, those nine rats in each treatment group were divided into three groups. Three of them were observed at months 1st, 2nd, and 3rd so that in each observation taken three rats in each treatment group. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and necropsy for taking their second femoral bone, i.e. dexter region for examining their bone impact strength, while the sinister region was used for measure the cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis and examining their bone microarchitecture using SEM analysis.


Based on results of the ANOVA test, the cortical thickness measurements of femoral diaphyseal can be seen that from month 1 to month 3 the lowest result was found in the group of rats that were OVX-I. Meanwhile, the highest result was found in the group of rats that were not OVX (SH-III). It was significantly different from the other treatment groups (p < 0.05). The groups of rats were OVX with honey supplementation at doses of 2 g/kg BW had shown an increasing pattern in the cortical bone thickness from month 1 to month 3. Even on the observation of the 3rd month, the cortical bone thickness in the AD-2 (AD-2-III) group was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that in the group of rats was not OVX in month 1 (SH-I). The results of the bone impact strength measurement from month 1 to month 3 indicated that the groups of rats were OVX without the administration of honey supplements had the lowest value. The highest bone impact strength was found in the group of rats that was not OVX, but not significantly different (p > 0.05) with the groups of rats that were OVX administered honey supplement with a dose of 2 g/kg BW (AD-2) and 4 g/kg BW (AD-3).


The supplement of honey A. dorsata at doses of 2 g/kg BW in the group of rats was that OVX can inhibit the decreasing of the cortical bone thickness and repair damage in microarchitecture to generate bone impact strength. As a result, bones are not easily broken.