Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Oil, Carotenoids, Squalene and Sterols from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) Bee Pollen
Food and Bioproducts Processing, Article in Press
The high-quality oil, abundant in carotenoids, squalene and sterols (mainly consisting of campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and β-amyrin), was extracted by supercritical CO2 from lotus bee pollen for its potential nutraceutical use.
The effects of extraction pressure and temperature on the yields and the compositions of the extracts were investigated by using a two-factor central composite rotatable design experiment. ANOVA for response surface model demonstrated that the data were adequately fitted into four polynomial models. The yields of the oil, carotenoids, squalene and sterols were significantly influenced by the experimental variables. It was predicted that maximum oil yield obtained at the extraction pressure of 38.2 MPa and temperature of 49.7 °C contained the maximum amount of carotenoids, squalene and sterols.
GC–FID analysis of the fatty acid composition of lotus bee pollen oil showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for approximately 22% of the total fatty acids.