Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Propolis and Propolis-Based Dietary Supplements from the Italian Market
Food Chemistry, Article in Press
Propolis and propolis-based extracts, attained from beekeepers and the local market, were analysed for the presence of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including 8 high molecular weight PAHs (PAH8), recently indicated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators of the presence of carcinogenic and genotoxic PAH in foods.
An analytical procedure based on microwave assisted saponification/extraction, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection, has been developed. About half of the samples analysed presented benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations exceeding 2 μg/kg, which is proposed as a regulatory limit for dietary supplements. A product-by product approach (based on maximum recommended dosage) was used to calculate PAH exposure.
Even thought the majority of the samples gave low exposure levels when compared to exposure levels from other diet constituents, PAH intakes deriving from a daily consumption of some of the investigated products provided an important contribution to the total dietary intake and lead to margin of exposure (MOE) values which are of concern for human health.