Propolis Immunomodulatory Action In Vivo on Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Expression and on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Mice
Phytother Res, 2009 Dec 29
Propolis is a bee product and its immunomodulatory action has been the subject of intense investigation lately. The recent discovery and characterization of the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR) have triggered a great deal of interest in the field of innate immunity due to their crucial role in microbial recognition and development of the adaptive immune response.
This work aimed to evaluate propolis's effect on TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6).
Male BALB/c mice were treated with propolis (200 mg/kg) for three consecutive days, and TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression as well as IL-1beta and IL-6 production were assessed in peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells. Basal IL-1beta production and TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression were increased in peritoneal macrophages of propolis-treated mice. TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression and IL-1beta and IL-6 production were also upregulated in the spleen cells of propolis-treated mice.
One may conclude that propolis activated the initial steps of the immune response by upregulating TLRs expression and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice, modulating the mechanisms of the innate immunity.